1700-tal: Nordic Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700 <p>Nordic Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies</p> Septentrio Academic Publishing en-US 1700-tal: Nordic Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies 1652-4772 <p>Since 2013, 1700-tal publishes all content online, currently with a one-year delay after the printed version is distributed.<br><br>Copyright on any content in 1700-tal is retained by the author(s).<br><br>Authors grant 1700-tal a license to publish their contributions in print and online or any other medium and to identify itself as the original publisher.<br><br>Authors give 1700-tal the right to distribute their contributions freely under a Creative Commons Attribution License. This implies that any third party has the right to use the contribution freely, provided that its original author(s), citation details and publisher are identified.<br><br>For more information on the Creative Commons Attribution License see <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/</a>.<br><br>Authors have the right to self-archive their contribution in its final form (publisher’s PDF) as soon as the printed version has been distributed.</p> Black Lives Matter meets Eighteenth-Century Studies: Perspectives from the Nordic countries https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5907 Johannes Ljungberg Per Pippin Aspaas Copyright (c) 2021 Johannes Ljungberg, Per Pippin Aspaas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 127 129 10.7557/4.5907 Contested legacies of early modern colonialism in Norway https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5908 Thomas Daltveit Slettebø Copyright (c) 2021 Thomas Daltveit Slettebø https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 130 138 10.7557/4.5908 Summary and reflections on the ”Linnaeus debate” in Sweden 2020/2021 https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5909 Annika Windahl Pontén Copyright (c) 2021 Annika Windahl Pontén https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 139 143 10.7557/4.5909 A Big Splash in Shallow Waters https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5910 Henrik Holm Copyright (c) 2021 Henrik Holm https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 144 149 10.7557/4.5910 Black Lives Matter movement, monuments and Finland https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5911 Sofia Aittomaa Copyright (c) 2021 Sofia Aittomaa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 150 152 10.7557/4.5911 Can’t remember to forget you https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5912 Arnór Gunnar Gunnarsson Jón Kristinn Einarsson Copyright (c) 2021 Arnór Gunnar Gunnarsson, Jón Kristinn Einarsson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 153 157 10.7557/4.5912 Eighteenth-century visions of the Stone Age https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5905 <p>Archaeological concepts of prehistory and the Stone Age are rooted in nineteenth-century scientific discoveries, which extended the human past much further back in time than was previously thought. Without this deep past, the disciplines of archaeology and history would not be what they are today. However, when the division of prehistory into the ages of stone, bronze, and iron was introduced in 1836, it was already an old idea. Stone Age artefacts and the initial phase of human history were discussed in the eighteenth-century academic world, even though the periodisation of history was constructed differently. In the philosophy of the Enlightenment several ideas surfaced which were essential to the formation of archaeology as a scientific practice, and which still affect the way the prehistoric past is imagined. This article examines the concept of a prehistoric, furthest past in Finnish scientific texts, within the framework of eighteenth-century Swedish traditions of science and historiography. How did the scholars in the Academy of Turku view Stone Age artefacts that had a multi-faceted nature in the antiquarian tradition? In what way did their visions of the earliest phase of the Nordic past set up later nationalistic narratives about prehistory?</p> Liisa Kunnas-Pusa Copyright (c) 2021 Liisa Kunnas-Pusa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 11 27 10.7557/4.5905 Fiktionalitet i F.C. Eilschovs Forsøg til en Fruentimmer-Philosophie https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5741 <p><span lang="EN-US">This article investigates how and why the Danish philosopher Frederik Christian Eilschov in <em>Forsøg til en Fruentimmer-Philosophie</em> as one of the first scientists in Denmark uses fictionality as a rhetorical strategy to communicate science. I argue that Eilschov uses both global and local fictionality to transfer scientific content from a male, Latin and scientific public to a female, Danish and literary public by mimicking rhetorical strategies prevalent in the female public. The reason for his changing rhetoric is that it among other things allows the readers to identify with a woman philosopher and presents a certain knowledge praxis and culture. In addition, Eilschov also thinks women have greater imagination and therefore are conditioned to other rhetorical strategies than men. Though Eilschov has been acknowledged as one of the more influential rationalists in Denmark during the 18<sup>th</sup>century as well as an important language puritan his role as one of the first scientists in Denmark that introduces fictionality as a rhetorical strategy to communicate science has been underemphasized. This article aims to change that.</span></p> Valdemar Nielsen Pold Copyright (c) 2021 Valdemar Nielsen Pold https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 28 43 10.7557/4.5741 Heteronomi som forutsetning for autonomi https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5207 <p>In his major works in ethics, Immanuel Kant (1724—1804) does not pay much attention to the question how humans become moral. The main tasks for Kant in these works are to establish the moral law and discuss its application. However, in his minor works in ethics and pedagogy he draws our attention to the question mentioned and claims that humans first become moral when they get 16 years old. Before we reach this age, our will (<em>Willkür</em>) is able to choose, that means prioritize, between rationality (the moral law) and sensitivity (inclinations), but our will (<em>Wille</em>) lacks the capacity to impose the moral law on ourselves. To evolve in this regard so that our will becomes fully moral and autonomous, we need moral restrictions from other people with more moral experience. The relevant Kantian distinction in this regard is the distinction Kant draws between persons and moral actors in the wake of his formula of the categorical imperative called the formula of humanity. According to this distinction, a person needs to be educated heteronomously in order to reach the level of moral actor and become autonomous. Constraint is therefore a necessary condition for self-constraint.</p> Fredrik Nilsen Copyright (c) 2021 Fredrik Nilsen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 18 44 65 10.7557/4.5207 Böndernas agerande inför och anpassning till storskiftet i sydvästra Finland https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5906 <p>This article examines peasants’ goals and means of negotiation in the reallocation of land or enclosure reform called <em>storskifte</em> in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century in Southwest Finland. It stresses the agency of peasants and their actions in the quest for best practices. The study is based on the meeting minutes of the <em>storskifte </em>reform of 230 villages with mainly freeholders or crown tenants as stakeholders. This article shows how peasants balanced between individualism and collectivism in their decision making because their goals were opposite. They aimed to increase the freedom of work and decision making in the household economy. At the same time, the cooperation with neighbours was an important method of decreasing the workload and costs of farming. Sources indicate that peasants made agreements with each other so they could combine both goals. They achieved independence as farmers as well as low costs by combining consolidation of land with mutual agreements about cooperation in specific issues, but they allowed each other to do individual decisions, too. This kind of flexible solution-seeking behaviour provides a new perspective on the discussion about peasants and agricultural change.</p> Kirsi Laine Copyright (c) 2021 Kirsti Laine https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 66 83 10.7557/4.5906 Pehr Strand och speluret på Lövstabruks herrgård https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5904 <p>Pehr Strand (c. 1758–1826) was the most prominent builder of organ clocks in Sweden around 1800. Strand built in the so-called Berlin tradition, but with clock cases decorated in the typical Gustavian style. The music on the barrels are examples of the typical repertoire performed at different venues in Stockholm, and published in the periodical <em>Musikaliskt Tidsfördrif</em>. A micro-history of the organ clock at the Lövstabruk Manor describes the current position of the research field, and provides, with related sources of different kinds, a reference point for a call to researchers from other fields to contribute in their respectively area of expertise.</p> Johan Norrback Copyright (c) 2021 Johan Norrback https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 84 103 10.7557/4.5904 Progress or Mistake? https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5682 <p>This article focuses on the ideas behind the introduction of reindeer to Iceland, how the Danish authorities played a role and the attitudes that prevailed among Icelanders towards this new species in Icelandic nature. The Danish authorities had reindeer exported from Finnmark in Norway to Iceland in the late eighteenth century. They adapted to the Icelandic environment and grew in numbers, except for the first imported little flock, which seems to have died out soon. The idea of bringing reindeer to Iceland came from a few Icelandic officials, who asked the Danish authorities for support. The reindeer kept themselves in the remote heaths and highlands in the districts where they roamed free from the beginning. Nevertheless, in harsh winters, they fled the highlands and came down to the lowlands to graze. This caused frustration among farmers, who complained to the authorities and demanded permission to hunt reindeer to defend their grazing land and obtain reindeer meat for their households.</p> Unnur Birna Karlsdóttir Copyright (c) 2021 Unnur Birna Karlsdóttir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 104 126 10.7557/4.5682 [Title page, Colophon, Table of Contents] https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5917 Johannes Ljungberg Copyright (c) 2021 Johannes Ljungberg https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-06 2021-07-06 18 [1] 5 Redaktionens förord https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5918 Johannes Ljungberg Johanna Ilmakunnas Per Pippin Aspaas Jens Bjerring-Hansen Kristín Bragadóttir Copyright (c) 2021 Johannes Ljungberg https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-06 2021-07-06 18 6 9 10.7557/4.5918 Call for papers: Rights and Wrongs in the 18th Century https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5919 Jens Bjerring-Hansen Tine Reeh Lasse Horne Kjældgaard Anne-Marie Mai Søren Peter Hansen Copyright (c) 2021 Johannes Ljungberg https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-06 2021-07-06 18 10 10 Jaakko Sivonen, Patriotism in an Absolute Monarchy: Fatherland, Citizenship and the Enlightenment in Prussia, 1756–1806 (Helsinki: Faculty of Arts, University of Helsinki, 2020). 306 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5893 Eva Piirimäe Copyright (c) 2021 Eva Piirimäe https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 158 160 10.7557/4.5893 Francisca Hoyer, Relations of Absence: Germans in the East Indies and Their Families c. 1750–1820 (Uppsala: Acta Historica Upsaliensia, 2020). 370 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5877 Hans Hägerdal Copyright (c) 2021 Hans Hägerdal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 161 164 10.7557/4.5877 Elisabeth Svarstad, 'Aqquratesse i alt af Dands og Triin og Opförsel': Dans som social dannelse i Norge 1750–1820 (Trondheim: doktorsavhandlingar ved NTNU, 2017). 261 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5889 Annika Windahl Pontén Copyright (c) 2021 Annika Windahl Pontén https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 165 169 10.7557/4.5889 Charlotte Bellamy, Les professionnels de bouche français dans la Suède gustavienne, 1750–1820 (Florence: European University Institute, 2020). 571 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5891 Charlotta Wolff Copyright (c) 2021 Charlotta Wolff https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 170 173 10.7557/4.5891 Kirsi Laine, Maatalous, isojako ja talonpoikainen päätöksenteko Lounais-Suomessa 1750–1850 [Agriculture, enclosure and the decision making of peasants in Sounth-West Finland 1750–1850] (Loimaa: Suomen maatalousmuseo Sarka, 2020). 394 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5880 Petri Talvitie Copyright (c) 2021 Petri Talvitie https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 174 176 10.7557/4.5880 Henrik Horstbøll, Ulrik Langen & Frederik Stjernfelt, Grov konfækt – Tre vilde år med trykkefrihed 1770-73 (København: Gyldendal, 2020). Vol. I, 513 pp., Vol. II, 559 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5902 Marie-Christine Skuncke Copyright (c) 2021 Marie-Christine Skuncke https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 177 183 10.7557/4.5902 Fabian Persson, Survival and Revival in Sweden’s Court and Monarchy, 1718‒1930 (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020). 349 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5868 Mikael Alm Copyright (c) 2021 Mikael Alm https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 184 187 10.7557/4.5868 Carolina Brown Ahlund, Den bekväma vardagen. Kvinnor kring bord på 1700-talets Näs (Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2020). 344 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5884 Beverly Tjerngren Copyright (c) 2021 Beverly Tjerngren https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 188 189 10.7557/4.5884 Doris Ottesen og Carsten Bach-Nielsen, Vestindiske spor: Dansk Vestindien i den koloniale og efterkoloniale litteraturhistorie (Odense Syddansk Universitetsforlag, 2020). 338 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5801 Lis Norup Copyright (c) 2021 Lis Norup https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 190 195 10.7557/4.5801 Fabian Persson, Women at the Early Modern Swedish Court. Power, Risk, and Opportunity (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2021). 340 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5886 Hedvig Widmalm Copyright (c) 2021 Hedvig Widmalm https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 196 199 10.7557/4.5886 Petri Talvitie, Taistelu perintökirjasta. Talonpojat, aateli ja kruununtilojen perinnöksiostot 1700-luvun Suomessa ja Ruotsissa [Kampen om bördsbrevet. Bönder, adel och skatteköp av kronohemman i Finland och Sverige på 1700-talet], Historiallisia tutkimuksia, 282 (Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2020). 297 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5894 Sofia Gustafsson Copyright (c) 2021 Sofia Gustafsson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 200 201 10.7557/4.5894 Johan Stén, Kulta-aika. Valistus ja luonnontieteet Turun Akatemiassa [The Golden Age. Enlightenment and science at the Academy of Turku] (Helsinki: Art House, 2021). 517 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5892 Ella Viitaniemi Copyright (c) 2021 Ella Viitaniemi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 202 203 10.7557/4.5892 Erla Dóris Halldórsdóttir, Óhreinu börnin hennar Evu: Holdsveiki í Noregi og á Íslandi [Eve’s Unclean Children: Leprosy in Iceland and Norway] (Reykjavík: Ugla, 2020). 416 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5896 Helga Hlín Bjarnadóttir Copyright (c) 2021 Helga Hlín Bjarnadóttir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 204 206 10.7557/4.5896 Anne Eriksen, Livets læremester: Historiske kunnskapstradisjoner i Norge 1650–1840 (Oslo: Pax forlag, 2020). 336 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5900 Leidulf Melve Copyright (c) 2021 Leidulf Melve https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 207 210 10.7557/4.5900 Bent Holm, Ludvig Holberg, a Danish Playwright on the European Stage: Masquerade, Comedy, Satire, oversat fra dansk af Gaye Kynoch (Hollitzer Verlag, 2018). 265 s. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5823 Jens Bjerring-Hansen Copyright (c) 2021 Jens Bjerring-Hansen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 211 213 10.7557/4.5823 Jacqueline Eales & Beverly Tjerngren (eds.), The Social Life of the Early Modern Protestant Clergy, Special issue of The Journal of Religious History, Literature and Culture, 6:2 (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2020). 120 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5818 Erik Sidenvall Copyright (c) 2021 Erik Sidenvall https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 214 216 10.7557/4.5818 Jens Baggesen. Labyrinten eller Reise giennem Tydskland, Schweitz og Frankerig 1-2. Tekstudgivelse, efterskrift og noter ved Henrik Blicher (København: Det danske Sprog- og Litteraturselskab/Gyldendal, 2016). 422 + 460 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5802 Marianne Stidsen Copyright (c) 2021 Marianne Stidsen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 217 220 10.7557/4.5802 Per Pippin Aspaas & László Kontler, Maximilian Hell (1720–92) and the Ends of Jesuit Science in Enlightenment Europe (Leiden: Brill, 2019). 477 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5897 Gunnar Ellingsen Copyright (c) 2021 Gunnar Ellingsen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 221 222 10.7557/4.5897 Jeppe Mulich, In a Sea of Empires: Networks and Crossings in the Revolutionary Caribbean (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020). 216 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5885 Aske Stick Gustav Ängeby Copyright (c) 2021 Aske Stick, Gustav Ängeby https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 223 226 10.7557/4.5885 Joseph M. Adelman, Revolutionary Networks: The Business and Politics of Printing the News 1763–1789 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2019). 255 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5901 Jonas Nordin Copyright (c) 2021 Jonas Nordin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 227 228 10.7557/4.5901 Meelis Friedenthal, Hanspeter Marti & Robert Seidel (eds.), Early Modern Disputations and Dissertations in an Interdisciplinary and European Context (Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2021). 908 pp. https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/1700/article/view/5903 Per Pippin Aspaas Copyright (c) 2021 Per Pippin Aspaas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 18 229 231 10.7557/4.5903