Borealis – An International Journal of Hispanic Linguistics https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/borealis <p>Borealis: An international journal of Hispanic linguistics is born with the double goal of providing a venue for the publication and discussion of research results on all areas of Contemporary Hispanic linguistics and giving researchers easy access to high quality articles dealing with some of the most crucial unresolved issues about the Spanish language. Borealis publishes original papers both in theoretical and applied linguistics about all varieties of Spanish. The journal has a chief editor, several associate editors and a scientific and advisory board.</p> Septentrio Academic Publishing en-US Borealis – An International Journal of Hispanic Linguistics 1893-3211 <p><span>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</span></p><ul><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ul> 'Tú' genérico en el español de la Ciudad de México https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/borealis/article/view/4834 <p>The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of generic you in the Spanish of Mexico City. A sociolinguistic study of the distribution of this pronominal subject is carried out. For this purpose, speech samples from two moments are analyzed, the first around 1970 and the second circa 2000. The results suggest that, on the one hand, generic you is used more and more frequently in Mexican Spanish and that there are more speakers who resort to their employment. On the other hand, the contexts of use of generic you have also been extended, because, although it occurs mainly with verbs in the present, it is also documented, to a lesser extent, in other contexts even with verbs in perfective aspect.</p> Leonor Orozco Copyright (c) 2019 Leonor Orozco http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 8 2 275 294 10.7557/1.8.2.4834 'Cadas cosas se leen' y 'cadas fantasma hay en la red': La 'pluralización' del cuantificador 'cada' en español actual https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/borealis/article/view/4847 <p>El presente trabajo ofrece una primera descripción del comportamiento del cuantificador <em>cadas</em> –en relación a su forma estándar <em>cada</em>– cuando aparece antepuesto a un sustantivo plural, esto es, a partir de las propiedades formales del elemento que acompaña. Este fenómeno no había sido objeto de estudio previo y debe ponerse en relación con la serie de cuantificadores que presentan concordancia en español actual, ya sea “esperable” (<em>bastante<u>s</u> pesado<u>s</u></em>) ya sea una “falsa pluralización” (<em>realmente<u>s</u> libre</em>), con marcador adverbial -<em>s</em>. Asimismo, analiza los casos en que la marca de plural falta en el nombre que precede a <em>cadas</em> y su comportamiento en relación a los nombres silenciosos, siguiendo para ello el trabajo de Pereira (2018) sobre el portugués de Brasil. En español actual, <em>cada</em> manifiesta marca de plural (-<em>s</em>) en los dos casos mencionados: <em>cada<u>s</u> cosa<u>s</u> se leen </em>y<em> cada<u>s</u> fantasm<u>a</u> hay en la red</em>. Sin embargo, la propuesta de Pereira no es del todo aplicable a las variedades del español. En efecto, el análisis de los datos obtenidos en la red social Twitter permite ofrecer algunos aspectos de interés tanto a nivel descriptivo como teórico. Desde el punto de vista descriptivo, es posible caracterizar el cuantificador <em>cadas</em> y sus formas complejas (<em>cadas cual</em>, <em>cadas quien</em>, etc.) en relación al comportamiento de la forma estándar. Desde el punto de vista teórico, los datos del español presentan algunas restricciones a la propuesta sobre la pluralización de <em>cada</em> en la variedad del portugués de Brasil (<em>cadas uno</em>).</p> Enrique Pato Copyright (c) 2019 Enrique Pato http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 8 2 225 242 10.7557/1.8.2.4847 Subject expression in a Southeastern U.S. Mexican community https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/borealis/article/view/4870 <p>Through an analysis of immigrant Spanish in Georgia, potential contact-induced language change is investigated through the lens of subject pronoun expression. Pronoun variation among Mexican speakers is examined using sociolinguistic interview data. Tokens of subject pronouns (N = 4,649) were coded for linguistic variables previously shown to constrain subject expression (e.g. person/number, tense-mood-aspect [TMA], polarity) as well as social variables (e.g. English proficiency, age), and then analysed using multivariate analyses in <em>Rbrul</em>. Results indicate an overall pronoun rate of 27%, which is slightly higher than what has been reported for monolingual Mexican Spanish. Several linguistic variables (e.g. person/number, switch-reference, morphological ambiguity, polarity) and one social variable (age) played a significant role in pronoun variation. Moreover, differential effects were revealed when compared to monolingual Mexican Spanish for variables such as TMA. These findings point in the direction of dialect contact influences and the presence of a unique variety of Mexican Spanish in the U.S.</p> Philip Limerick Copyright (c) 2019 Philip Limerick http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 8 2 243 273 10.7557/1.8.2.4870 Variation in interrogative adverbials: 'cuán', 'qué tan', 'cómo de','lo que' and 'lo'+adj./adv.+'que' https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/borealis/article/view/4909 <p class="western" align="left"><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em>C</em></span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em>uán, qué tan, </em></span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">and </span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em>cómo de </em></span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">are used to modify adverbs and adjectives in interrogatives</span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. The</span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">y </span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">are also used in embedded clauses </span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">along with</span></span> <span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em>lo que.</em></span></span> <span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Instances of these expressions were extracted from the Corpus del Espa</span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">ñ</span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">ol. In interrogatives, </span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em>qué tan </em></span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">was the most frequent. The idea that </span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em>cuán </em></span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">is archaic or limited to literary usage is not supported </span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">by these data</span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em>Cómo de</em></span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is extremely infrequent except in Peninsular Spanish. In embedded clauses the frequency of these expressions appear in this order of frequency: </span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em>lo que </em></span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em>&gt;</em></span></span> <span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em>qué tan </em></span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em>&gt;</em></span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em> cuán </em></span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em>&gt;</em></span></span><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em> cómo de. </em></span></span></p> <p class="western" align="left"><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">In an experiment speakers from Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela were shown 28 test sentences that contained different adverbial interrogatives. </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Their task was to cho</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">o</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">se the </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">expression</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> they </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">preferred</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Th</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">ese</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> results correlate highly with the </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">production </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">data from the corpus. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Choice of adverbial was </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">moderated by gender and age as well.</span></span></span></p> <p class="western" align="left">&nbsp;</p> David Ellingson Eddington Copyright (c) 2019 David Eddington http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 8 2 321 342 10.7557/1.8.2.4909 ¿Por qué las cópulas son auxiliares? https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/borealis/article/view/4956 <p>Abstract. Copulas work as auxiliary verbs in Spanish and in other languages. In this article, we will argue in favor of this property being due to the absence of lexical content of the copula verb be<sub>1</sub> (Sp. ‘ser’), on the one hand, and the aspectual content of the verb be<sub>2</sub> (Sp. ‘estar’), on the other hand.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Joshua Gómez Rubio Copyright (c) 2019 Joshua Gómez Rubio http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 8 2 199 224 10.7557/1.8.2.4956 Expresión de la sorpresa, miratividad y gramaticalización de verbos inacusativos en español https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/borealis/article/view/4913 <p>El presente trabajo pretende analizar en detalle el comportamiento morfosintáctico de un conjunto de construcciones gramaticalizadas que permiten expresar la sorpresa en español, en particular el de Argentina. Entre esas construcciones incluimos las perífrasis del español general <em>ir a</em> + infinitivo y <em>venir a</em> + infinitivo que, pese a tener un significado eminentemente aspectual, codifican también el carácter sorpresivo o inesperado del evento. También nos detenemos en estructuras no perifrásticas que expresan en forma más o menos enfática la sorpresa e involucran el verbo <em>ir </em>(o variantes) combinado con otras palabras funcionales, como conjunciones o negación: <em>va y… </em>(y sus variantes<em> viene y…, agarra y…</em>),<em> no va y…, no va que…</em>. Luego de revisar esos datos, presentamos someramente la discusión teórica actual (aun no saldada) sobre la naturaleza de la miratividad e incorporamos el caso de una expresión inequívocamente mirativa, <em>había sido</em> (<em>que</em>), tal como aparece en dos variedades no estándares: el español rural de América del Sur y el español en contacto con guaraní, revisando su análisis en Avellana (2012, 2013), basada a su vez en la cartografía de las proyecciones funcionales de Cinque (1999) y Cinque &amp; Rizzi (2016). Finalmente, sistematizamos nuestro propio análisis sobre las construcciones del español, tomando en cuenta los rasgos semánticos ligados a la miratividad (según Aikhenvald 2012), sus posiciones respecto de las proyecciones funcionales de Aspecto y Modo y el proceso de gramaticalización de verbos inacusativos, principalmente<em> ir</em>.</p> Laura Malena Kornfeld Copyright (c) 2019 Laura Malena Kornfeld http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 8 2 165 197 10.7557/1.8.2.4913 Terminología y parámetros del voseo https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/borealis/article/view/4874 <p>RESUMEN: Este trabajo propone una terminología de referencia para el grupo de variedades voseantes en el español americano. Pretende contribuir a la literatura sobre el voseo en dos aspectos de relevancia. Por un lado, el sistema paramétrico indica los límites del espacio de variación para la minigramática del voseo. Por otro lado, el sistema paramétrico sienta las bases de una terminología transparente, eficiente, consistente y mnemotécnicamente adecuada. El sistema paramétrico del voseo que aquí se presenta pretende dar cabida a todas las variedades voseantes en el plano gramatical, dejando completamente a un lado cualquier tipo de consideración sociolingüística o ecoglótica. Contiene además revisiones de términos anteriores, una elaboración de los aspectos morfosintácticos del voseo, así como un nuevo enfoque funcional como criterio para entender la conjugación de las variedades con voseo tuteante. No es, desde luego, un trabajo definitivo que cierre el tema de forma concluyente.</p> Miguel Vázquez-Larruscaín María Mercedes Teira Ana Laura Sieder Copyright (c) 2019 Miguel Vázquez-Larruscaín http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2019-10-24 2019-10-24 8 2 295 319 10.7557/1.8.2.4874 On the actuality entailment of Spanish root modals https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/borealis/article/view/4842 <p>This paper examines the actuality entailments of Spanish past perfective root modals. I wil side<br>with those authors that maintain that the phenomenon is syntactic. Nevertheless, the emphasis will not be<br>on scope differences between projections, but on the fact that the root modal periphrasis is an example of<br>restructuring structure. More precisely, I will claim that root modal periphrases may be included among<br>the constructions with a low level of restructuring. This point of view will take me to propose that these<br>periphrastic structures give rise to a complex event which behaves as a non-homogeneous predicate with<br>regard to temporal-aspectual meaning.</p> Angeles Carrasco Copyright (c) 2019 Angeles Carrasco http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2019-10-24 2019-10-24 8 2 111 141 10.7557/1.8.2.4842 Periphrases in Spanish: properties, diagnostics and research questions https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/borealis/article/view/4944 <p>This article provides an overview of the main facts and analytical problems that relate to verbal periphrases. The article is structured as follows. In §1 I provide an overview of the main criteria for being a periphrasis, and the constructions that it should be differentiated from. §2 is devoted to the nature of the auxiliary verb, and its limits with other types of verbs. In §3 I talk about the auxiliated verb, and the linking element that sometimes appears in connection to it. §4 briefly discusses the main structure of a periphrasis, and is followed by a few sections about the syntactic behaviour of these linguistic objects. §5 discusses the behaviour of clitics within periphrases; §6 talks about the selectional restrictions; §7 talks about the behaviour of passives with these structures. §8 discusses the semantic classification of periphrases and some of the research problems that they trigger. §9 talks about sequences of periphrases, and their additional restrictions.</p> Antonio Fábregas Copyright (c) 2019 Antonio Fábregas http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2019-10-24 2019-10-24 8 2 1 82 10.7557/1.8.2.4944 On the interaction between modal and aspectual periphrases https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/borealis/article/view/4948 <p>This paper explores the semantics of combinations in which a modal verb is preceded by a progressive, an incremental or a habitual periphrasis. Two distinct readings in context, aspectualized VP and aspectualized modality readings, are found to correlate with the (not-)at- issue status of the modal according to Tonhauser's diagnostics. Implicative readings (a generalization of the more restrictive notion of actuality entailments) emerge obligatorily in aspectualized VP readings, but are also present in some aspectualized modality readings. Aspectualized modality readings provide evidence for the claim that modalized event descriptions are stative.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Brenda Laca Copyright (c) 2019 Brenda Laca http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2019-10-24 2019-10-24 8 2 83 109 10.7557/1.8.2.4948