Borealis – An International Journal of Hispanic Linguistics <p>Borealis: An international journal of Hispanic linguistics is born with the double goal of providing a venue for the publication and discussion of research results on all areas of Contemporary Hispanic linguistics and giving researchers easy access to high quality articles dealing with some of the most crucial unresolved issues about the Spanish language. Borealis publishes original papers both in theoretical and applied linguistics about all varieties of Spanish, and follows the <a href="">COPE ethical guidelines</a> at every stage of the editorial process. The journal has a chief editor, several associate editors and a scientific and advisory board.</p> Septentrio Academic Publishing en-US Borealis – An International Journal of Hispanic Linguistics 1893-3211 <p><span>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</span></p><ul><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ul> Los mejores diagnósticos sobre estados reunidos <p>The study of states has traditionally suffered from a problem: until recently we lacked tests adequate enough to identify states, since most of these tests were tests that states failed, so this aspectual class could only be defined negatively. With the purpose of offering a useful tool to interested researchers, this article compiles more than twenty diagnoses on states. Along with the more classic (negative) diagnoses (developed in the traditions of Vendler-Dowty and Davidson), a good number of more recent diagnoses are included that already allow to positively characterize states.</p> Rafael Marín Copyright (c) 2022 Rafael Marín 2022-12-09 2022-12-09 11 3 229 246 10.7557/ Adjuntos, aspecto léxico y significado verbal <p>This paper investigates how and why the lexical content of adjuncts contributes to specifying the aspectual information of verbs (and also other non-aspectual meanings), and what consequences this specification has for a general theory of the construction of the meaning of predication.</p> <p>The hypothesis argues that adjuncts are predicated of fragments of the content, not only aspectual, of the predicates to which they are attached. Sub-lexical feature-agreement mechanisms legitimize combinations in which the predicate satisfies the selection constraints of the adjunct, discard non-matching combinations or rescue a non-matching combination by means of a coercion operation, in which the adjunct displays the required meaning in the predicate, if the words that make it up potentially contain it in their definition.</p> <p>The adjunct focuses or visualizes sub-lexical contents of the verbal predicate, which explains why its presence disambiguates the aspectual polysemy of certain combinations of verb and complement. Likewise, its intervention is decisive for the legitimization of redundant and, therefore, informatively irrelevant predications.</p> <p>This conception of the adjunct as a predicate of sub-lexical contents of the predicate with which it co-occurs allows us to circumvent the problems traditionally associated with its nature as a non-selected constituent whose appearance, on the other hand, is not always optional or unrestricted, nor is it indifferent to aspectual effects: the proposal also has interesting consequences for the analysis of a set of phenomena for which syntax does not seem to have an explanation.</p> Elena De Miguel Copyright (c) 2022 Elena De Miguel 2022-12-09 2022-12-09 11 3 193 228 10.7557/ El español de Puerto Rico en el siglo XXI: nuevos acercamientos lingüísticos y socioculturales <p>Este trabajo presenta el conjunto de artículos que constituyen este número monográfico.</p> Sandro Sessarego Rafel Jiménez Baralt Irene Arias Quintero Melvin González Rivera Copyright (c) 2022 Sandro Sessarego, Rafel Jiménez Baralt, Irene Arias Quintero, Melvin González Rivera 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 11 3 1 5 10.7557/ Review of 'Understanding and teaching reflexive sentences in Spanish' <p>This is a review of González (2022) book on SE-structures.</p> Antonio Fábregas Copyright (c) 2022 Antonio Fábregas 2022-12-09 2022-12-09 11 3 441 448 10.7557/ Lexical aspect in Spanish: contrasts, syntactic structures and semantic interpretations <p>The different distinctions related to lexical aspect –state, activity, accomplishments and achievements– play an important role in the grammar of Spanish, but many of the details about how these distinctions can be implemented are unclear: which features distinguish between the classes, how the classes relate to each other, what is the nature of telicity or dynamicity and how one can account for the alternations that a verb is subject to involving its aspect are some of the most important problems from this perspective. The goal of this article is to provide a sufficient empirical base to address these questions and present the current alternatives to answer them.</p> Antonio Fábregas Copyright (c) 2022 Antonio Fábregas 2022-12-09 2022-12-09 11 3 1 191 10.7557/ Sobre la sintaxis de las oraciones de relativo <p>In this paper we examine existing analyses for relative clauses (mainly restrictive ones), and propose an analysis for Spanish relatives from the perspective of a lexicalised Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG). We will provide a summary of the main proposals in the literature and examine the questions that any analysis of relative clauses should address. Our TAG approach synthesises the descriptive and theoretical advantages of existing models (the head external analysis, the raising analysis, and the matching analysis) and offers a solution to some of the main problems that have been observed in the literature. We will focus on the internal configuration of relative clauses, their structural position, and the category of the expression <em>que</em> in Spanish.</p> Diego Gabriel Krivochen Copyright (c) 2022 Diego Gabriel Krivochen 2022-12-09 2022-12-09 11 3 305 377 10.7557/ The use of 'ocupar' as a verb of necessity in Mexican Spanish <p>In Mexican Spanish, <em>ocupar </em>(‘to occupy’) is often employed as a verb of need and necessity, with a similar use and denotation to those of <em>necesitar </em>(‘to need’). Despite it being widespread, very little has been written about this phenomenon. In this article, I provide a description of this novel meaning. This description is supported by a Twitter-based study on the distribution of the meanings of <em>ocupar </em>around three Mexican cities. The quantitative analysis of the data confirms the extensive use of <em>ocupar </em>as <em>necesitar</em>, although to varying extents; concretely, it was found to be most frequent in Monterrey. In qualitative terms, I demonstrate that <em>ocupar </em>as <em>necesitar </em>is more often used to express need (i.e., with a nominal complement) than modal necessity (i.e., as a semiauxiliary with a sentential complement). Lastly, I propose that the emergence of this meaning represents a case of ongoing grammaticalization, whose origin can be traced back to older meanings via semantic reanalysis</p> Erick Garcia Chavez Copyright (c) 2022 Erick Garcia Chavez 2022-12-09 2022-12-09 11 3 247 263 10.7557/ Reseña de Ciapuscio, G. y A. Adelstein (Coord). La lingüística. Una introducción a sus principales preguntas <h1 class="page_title">Review of Ciapuscio, G. and A. Adelstein (Coord). La lingüística. Una introducción a sus principales preguntas</h1> Romina Trebisacce Copyright (c) 2022 Romina Trebisacce 2022-12-09 2022-12-09 11 3 431 440 10.7557/ Some Remarks on the Origin of Afro-Puerto Rican Spanish <p style="font-weight: 400;">A number of proposals have tried to account for the genesis and development of a set of Afro-Hispanic language varieties, the vernaculars ​​that formed in Latin America from the contact between African languages ​​and Spanish in colonial times (Sessarego 2021). This article presents a sociohistorical and linguistic analysis of Loza Spanish (LS), an Afro-Puerto Rican vernacular spoken in Loíza, Puerto Rico by the descendants of the Africans brought to this Caribbean island in colonial times to work as slaves on sugarcane plantations. This article assesses the evolution of this variety and its implications for creole studies. In so doing, it contributes to the long-lasting debate on the reasons behind the paucity of Spanish-based creoles in the Americas (Granda 1968 <em>et seq.</em>).</p> Piero Visconte Sandro Sessarego Copyright (c) 2022 PIERO VISCONTE, SANDERO SESSAREGO 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 11 3 77 93 10.7557/ Indicative directive complements: mood and modal concord in Spanish <p>Directive predicates are words with meanings that are similar to ‘order’, ‘require’, ‘recommend’, and ‘advise’. Being volitional in nature, directives are said to form part of the core group of subjunctive-taking predicates. This means that, like desiderative (e.g., <em>querer que</em> ‘to want that’) and purpose clauses (e.g., <em>para que </em>‘so that’), they are expected to, and generally do, take the subjunctive. However, findings from the present investigation suggest that, in spite of this description, there are certain contexts in which indicative directive complements are strongly preferred. Analyses showed that indicative directive clauses are strongly preferable to subjunctive complements when the embedded verb is of the same modality type (e.g., teleological) and strength (e.g., weak necessity) as the matrix directive; i.e., when there is modal concord. In the case of subjunctive complements, they are preferable to indicative, only when there is no concord between the embedded and main directive predicates. These findings are significant, not only because directives are normatively described as requiring the subjunctive, but also because no previous studies have examined a link between mood and modal concord.</p> Tris Faulkner Copyright (c) 2022 Tris Faulkner 2022-12-09 2022-12-09 11 3 291 304 10.7557/