Nordlit 2019-11-15T10:18:21+01:00 Linda Nesby Open Journal Systems <p>Nordlit er et Open Access-tidsskrift som gis ut av Institutt for språk og kultur&nbsp;ved Fakultet for humaniora, samfunnsvitenskap og lærerutdanning, UiT Norges arktiske universitet.</p> Introduction 2019-11-15T10:18:16+01:00 Sigrun Høgetveit Berg Roald E Kristiansen Cathinka Dahl Hambro 2019-11-04T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Sigrun Høgetveit Berg, Roald E Kristiansen, Cathinka Dahl Hambro The Reformation and the Idea of the North 2019-11-15T10:18:18+01:00 Peter Marshall <p>Both scholarly and popular perceptions have identified a profound cultural and political realignment of Europe with the Reformation of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: a largely Protestant North confronting a predominantly Catholic South. This replaced a medieval conceptual geography of East-West, in which the North (on the basis of scriptural passages) was a zone of sinfulness and danger. This chapter argues that the emergence of a North-South cultural-religious dichotomy was more fraught and uncertain than often supposed. Late medieval North European humanists countered negative perceptions with patriotic accounts of national origins. In the era of the Counter-Reformation, British and Scandinavian Catholic exiles emphasised the intrinsic virtue and orthodoxy of northerners, and the potential for reclaiming their homelands from heresy. Protestants were often ambivalent about the North, not least since northern parts of England, Scotland, Ireland and Denmark-Norway were often associated with Catholic resistance, as well as with magic and superstition. The propaganda of the British Civil Wars reinforced both positive and negative stereotypes. While a cultural association of Protestantism with the North eventually took root, this was a contingent process, and should be seen more as a consequence than a cause of the stabilization of Europe’s confessional borders.</p> 2019-11-04T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Peter Marshall Orkney, Shetland and the Networks of the Northern Reformation 2019-11-15T10:18:20+01:00 Charlotte Methuen <p>This article explores the possible implications of the relationship between Orkney and Shetland and Norway for understanding the spread of the Reformation, focusing on the period between the late 1520s, when Reforming ideas began to be preached in Bergen, and 1560, when the Reformation was introduced into Scotland, including Orkney and Shetland. Draws on a scholarship which has shown the importance for the Reformation of language, trade, migration and urban/rural distinctions it investigates tantalising hints of contact between Orkney and Shetland, Norway (particularly Bergen) and Germany in questions of religion. This article does not seek to revise current understandings of the relationships of Orkney and Shetland to Scotland but seeks to explore what insights into (proto-)Reformation processes in Orkney and Shetland when possible influences from debates the Norwegian context – specifically Bergen – are considered alongside the influence of Scottish debates about religion. It concludes that whilst there is some evidence of contacts between individuals and that these contacts must have had aspects which related to religious practice, both the rural nature of Orkney and Shetland communities, and their relative isolation, meant that Reformation ideas were slow to take hold.</p> 2019-08-05T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Charlotte Methuen The Reformation of Death and Grief in Northern Scotland 2019-11-15T10:18:19+01:00 Gordon Raeburn <p>In many ways the Scottish Reformation was a centralised, top-down event, driven by prominent members of the aristocracy, and imposed in stages throughout the country with greater or lesser success. Certain areas, in particular the Highlands and Islands, were harder to reform than other parts of the country, and certain aspects of pre-Reformation religious life were never fully excised from daily practice. This chapter examines the process of reform as applied to death, burial, and the emotions surrounding these events in the Highlands and Islands, in order to determine what aspects of pre-Reformation practice survived intact, which were modified, and which were removed entirely. The chapter investigates the speed of these changes, and the resistance to them, as this will determine the degree to which the reform of death was welcomed in the most remote parts of Scotland. Finally, this paper will briefly compare the practices surrounding death and burial in the Northern Isles with those of other parts of Scotland in order to determine the influence upon these islands from Scotland in comparison to the lingering practices from before they came under Scottish control.</p> 2019-11-04T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Gordon Raeburn Are the Netherlands a Nordic Country? Reflections on Understanding the Lutheran Tradition in the Netherlands 2019-11-15T10:18:20+01:00 Sabine Hiebsch <p>Kommer</p> 2019-09-09T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Sabine Hiebsch Reformation, Mikael Agricola, and the Birth of the Finnish Literary Language 2019-11-15T10:18:17+01:00 Kaisa Häkkinen Kirsi Salonen Tanja Toropainen <p>This article revisits the traditional history of the birth of the Finnish literary language in the aftermath of the Lutheran Reformation in the first half of the 16<sup>th</sup> century. Contrary to what earlier scholars have assumed, the article argues that the creation of the Finnish literary language cannot be attributed exclusively to the Bishop of Turku, Mikael Agricola, who is known as “the father of the Finnish literary language” because he published the first printed books in Finnish. The article will show that although the first Finnish publications were printed in the name of the Bishop of Turku, they were based on the translations of more authors. The article will also propose answers to the question, who these until now unknown authors could have been. The article is based on the study of relevant contemporary historical source material and close linguistic analysis of the early translations of ecclesiastical texts into Finnish.</p> 2019-11-04T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Kaisa Häkkinen, Kirsi Salonen, Tanja Toropainen The Icelandic Language at the Time of the Reformation 2019-11-15T10:18:17+01:00 Veturliði Óskarsson <p>The process of the Reformation in Iceland in its narrow sense is framed by the publication of the New Testament in 1540 and the whole Bible in 1584. It is sometimes believed that Icelandic lan­guage would have chang­ed more than what it has, if these translations had not seen the day.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; During the 16th century, in all 51 books in Icelandic were printed. Almost all are translations, mostly from German. These books contain many loanwords, chiefly of German origin. These words are often a direct result of the Reformation, but some of them are considerably older. As an example, words with the German prefix <em>be</em>- were discussed to some length in the article.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Some loanwords from the 16th century have lived on to our time, but many were either wiped out in the Icelandic language purism of the nineteenth and twentieth century, or never became an integrated part of the language, outside of religious and official texts. Some words even only show up in one or two books of the 16th century.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The impact of the Reformation on the future develop­ment of the Icelandic language, other than a temporary one on the lexicon was limited, and influence on the (spoken) language of common people was probably little.</p> 2019-11-04T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Veturliði Óskarsson The Reformation and the Linguistic Situation in Norway 2019-11-15T10:18:21+01:00 Endre Mørck <p>The article gives a short account of the development of the spoken language from Old Norwegian to Modern Norwegian, the transition from Norwegian to Danish as the written language in Norway and the language of the church around the Reformation. It is argued that the changes in the spoken language were a long-term development completed, on the whole, at the time of the Reformation, that the transition from Norwegian to Danish as the written language was also well on the way before the Reformation, and that the vernacular was not abruptly introduced in the Lutheran service. So, the linguistic situation in the centuries following the Reformation is only to a lesser degree a result of the Reformation itself. The Reformation should first and foremost be credited with the translation of the Bible into Danish and with it the consolidation of a modern form of Danish which was spread through the extensive religious literature of the time. Later this consolidated written language formed the basis for the development of a higher variety of spoken Norwegian.</p> 2019-08-05T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Endre Mørck Luther and Norwegian Nation-Building 2019-11-15T10:18:18+01:00 Anders Aschim <p>In most Protestant countries, the Reformation was closely connected to the development of vernacular languages and literatures. In Norway under Danish rule, this was not the case. Only in the 19th century, during the nation-building period of independent Norway, a Norwegian ecclesiastical language was developed. Some authors claim that this completed the Reformation in Norway – a protracted Reformation indeed. Particularly important were the hymns of Magnus Brostrup Landstad and Elias Blix.</p> <p>This study examines the role of Luther in the Norwegian 19th century national discourse, suggesting a three-phase development: Luther as text, as inspiration, and as argument. The full-blown use of Luther as argument was taken up by proponents of a nynorsk ecclesiastical language only during the final years of the Swedish-Norwegian union, just before its dissolution in 1905.</p> 2019-11-04T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Anders Aschim Isaac Olsen – The First Missionary among the Sami People in Finnmark? 2019-11-15T10:18:16+01:00 Liv Helene Willumsen <p>This article deals with Isaac Olsen, a Norwegian who was an itinerant catechist and teacher among the Sami people in Finnmark, Northern Norway. The author claims that Isaac Olsen, as a forerunner to the Sami missionary Thomas von Westen, in fact was the first missionary among the Sami people in Finnmark. Isaac Olsen came to Finnmark just after 1700, learned the Sami language and started his work among the Sami population in Eastern Finnmark. He got to know the Sami people well, and they gave him information about Sami pre-Christian religious practice, among other names of places of sacrifice. These names, in addition to many other pieces of information, were written down by Isaac Olsen in a copybook that has been preserved. The article discusses in great detail the contents of this book, which contains valuable knowledge about Early Modern Sami culture and religion. Isaac Olsen, also as a pioneer, translated Danish religious texts into the Sami language, called to Copenhagen to perform translation work by the Missionary College. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-11-04T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Liv Helene Willumsen Bidragsytere 2019-11-15T10:18:15+01:00 Cathinka Dahl Hambro 2019-11-08T12:49:39+01:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Cathinka Dahl Hambro