Nordlit <p><em>Nordlit</em> is an Open Access journal for Nordic literature and culture, published by the Department of Language and Culture at the Faculty of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education at UiT The Arctic University of Norway.</p> Septentrio Academic Publishing en-US Nordlit 0809-1668 <p>Forfattere som publiserer i dette tidsskriftet aksepterer følgende vilkår:<br><br></p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Forfattere beholder copyright og gir tidsskriftet retten til første publisering samtidig som verket lisensieres med en <a href=""><span style="color: #ca006c;">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International lisens</span></a> som tillater andre å dele verket, forutsatt at verkets forfatter og første publisering i tidsskriftet erkjennes.</li> <li class="show">Forfattere kan inngå separate, ikke-eksklusive avtaler om annen distribusjon av tidsskriftets publiserte utgave av verket (f.eks. egenarkivering i et vitenarkiv eller publisering i en bok), så lenge førstepubliseringen i tidsskriftet erkjennes.</li> <li class="show">Forfattere tillates og oppmuntres til å gjøre verket tilgjengelig på nettet (f.eks. i et vitenarkiv eller på andre nettsider) før og under innlevering, da dette kan lede til nyttige menings- og kunnskapsutvekslinger og til tidligere og mer sitering av det publiserte verket. (Se <a href="" target="_new"><span style="color: #ca006c;">The Effect of Open Access</span></a>).</li> </ol> Relasjoner ved enden av <i>Regnbuen</i> (1953) <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-US">In her autobiography </span><em><span lang="EN-US">The Rainbow</span></em><span lang="EN-US"> Marie Hamsun gave her husband Knut a mind, a body and a family. She brought the public an “inside view” and was rewarded with public reverence, in spite of her background as a non-repenting Nazi. Book reviews from October 1953 show how the (overwhelmingly) male reviewers embraced the book as an opportunity to "take back Hamsun", despite his Nazi affiliations. They were to a lesser extent interested in the book as Marie Hamsun's own literary project. This is echoed in the research on Hamsun where the book is frequently cited as a source, but only to a small extent referred to as literature. This article examines The Rainbow as an act of communication in which the author's intention and readers' acknowledgments are seen as relational. </span></p> Anne Hege Simonsen Copyright (c) 2020 Anne Hege Simonsen 2020-11-11 2020-11-11 47 1–13 1–13 10.7557/13.5512 Symbolisme og sanselighet i Knut Hamsuns <i>Victoria</i> (1898) <p>Hamsun's novel Victoria is a story of jealousy between the miller's son Johannes, Victoria, the daughter raised on the estate, and the officer Otto. It is also a novel about Johannes' development as an author. The article examines the relationship between Johannes as a keen observer of phenomena in nature – taking note of scents and visual impressions, sounds and tactile sensations - and his imagination, his dreams and visions. The hypothesis is that Johannes in his relationship with the natural surroundings of his rural village develops what in ecocriticism is termed an ecological self, and that this distinguishes him – in a positive manner – from his rival Otto.</p> Henning Howlid Wærp Copyright (c) 2020 Henning Howlid Wærp 2020-11-11 2020-11-11 47 14–24 14–24 10.7557/13.5320 Eros in the Hamsunian Male Figure <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-US">Using a psychoanalytic perspective, I explore Knut Hamsun’s novels, <em>Sult</em> (1890), <em>Mysterier</em> (1892), <em>Pan</em> (1894), and <em>Victoria</em> (1898) and focus on the power that the women in fantasy have over the different male protagonists, whom I term the Hamsunian male. Within each fantasy, the women either dominate or exert supernatural power over the Hamsunian male. By undertaking such an investigation, I examine how the desired women in fantasy differ from the main female characters, in so far as they portray the Hamsunian male’s desire that ranges from intense eroticism to fear and death. While my focus on the female characters in the Hamsunian male differs from the discussions concerning the main female characters, I note that such women comment on the depiction of the masculine gender in Hamsun’s work. Furthermore, the discussion shows the power of women in fantasy, thus questioning whether they should continue to be disregarded as only superficially feminine. </span></p> Lisa Yamasaki Copyright (c) 2020 Lisa Yamasaki 2020-11-11 2020-11-11 47 25–34 25–34 10.7557/13.5216 Rum där män möts <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-US">The article analyses Knut Hamsun’s short story ”Hemmelig ve” [”Secret Suffering”] (1897) from the perspective of queer theory. The article argues that Hamsun’s short story depicts same-sex desire between the narrator and a man described only as ”the stranger”. The stranger is interpreted as the narrator’s double, and as such a representation of the narrator’s forbidden desire. This interpretation is founded on a comparison between the 1897 version of the text, and an earlier version published as ”Underlige Sjæle” [”Strange Souls”] (1891), and on a close reading of the two men’s meetings. The article concludes with a discussion of Hamsun scholarship’s engagement with queer theory.</span></p> Henrik Johnsson Copyright (c) 2020 Henrik Johnsson 2020-12-09 2020-12-09 47 35 50 10.7557/13.5635 <i>Markens Grøde</i> (1917) i et bokhistorisk perspektiv <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">Growth of the Soil</span><span lang="EN-US"> (1917) is usually associated with Hamsun’s period as a farmer on Hamarøy and is closely connected to the nature of Nordland. That is not completely wrong, but far from the truth, as Hamsun moved south when he grew tired of the farming life up North. And it was to the city of Larvik in Vestfold he traveled and settled down with his family to complete the novel. </span></p> <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-US">The article attempts to shed light over some of the preconditions for the completion of the novel. These are conditions linked to time, place and people in the local environment through spring, summer and autumn 1917. The borderland where Hamsun rented a shed in order to work on his novel, is called Nanset, and is located between the urban municipality Larvik and the rural municipality Hedrum. Furthermore, the article addresses the distribution and reception of the novel, as well as some of the consequences that followed the Nobel prize in literature in 1920, which was bestowed upon the novel.</span></p> <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-US">It is of particular interest to investigate the impact the novel had through the interwar period with respect to the racism and antisemitism that is expressed in the novel. While most reviewers agree upon Hamsun’s viewpoints, Carl Joachim Hambro, as the only reviewer, warned against his way of thinking. It is therefore further illuminated through the meeting with the merchant Aron in the novel, as well as Hamsun’s neighbor at Nanset, Israel Leib Sachnowitz.</span></p> Ståle Dingstad Copyright (c) 2020 Ståle Dingstad 2020-11-11 2020-11-11 47 51–64 51–64 10.7557/13.5352 Vilken svensk författare motsvarar Knut Hamsun och Örnulf Tigerstedt? <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-US">“Which Swedish author could be compared to Yukio Mishima of Japan, Ernst Jünger of Germany and Louis-Ferdinand Céline of France?”, a Swedish debater and researcher asks in an article in 2016. To these well-known, even if infamous, authors, Knut Hamsun of Norway and Örnulf Tigerstedt of Finland are added. With the question raised, Nazi party leaders and Nazi followers as well as national poets of Sweden are scrutinized. Which of them could be considered to be Nazi poets, and which of them have been wrongly associated with Nazism? And were all Nazi poets men? In our time, with ultra-nationalism and populism in far right and far left movements, a new kind of Nazism even, it is more important than ever to deal with the Nazi past and reflect upon how Nazism is dealt with in Nazi political poetry, in Sweden as well as in the other Nordic countries.</span></p> Bibi Jonsson Copyright (c) 2020 Bibi Jonsson 2020-12-09 2020-12-09 47 65 76 10.7557/13.5632 «En hel vitenskap på trass» <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-US">The article discusses </span><span lang="EN-US">Paa gjengrodde stier</span><span lang="EN-US">’s reception history with an emphasis on how Knut Hamsun’s alleged “permanently impaired mental faculties” have affected analyses of the work. I argue that upon publication, the claim is established that </span><span lang="EN-US">Paa gjengrodde stier</span><span lang="EN-US"> “proves” that the conclusion regarding Hamsun as a person with permanently impaired mental faculties is incorrect. In the review of the book’s reception, I show how this notion apparently is so well incorporated that a number of readings keep it alive without questioning it, or without explaining how a literary work can contradict a forensic conclusion. This is shown for example through how the work is presented to us as readers today, which is discussed through Genette’s notion of the paratext. Finally, I argue that readings of </span><span lang="EN-US">Paa gjengrodde stier</span><span lang="EN-US"> which transcend academic disciplines should be welcomed, but that such an approach requires a better methodological awareness than what has previously been the case.</span></p> Ingri Løkholm Ramberg Copyright (c) 2020 Ingri Løkholm Ramberg 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 47 77 92 10.7557/13.5636 The Transgressive Narratives of Hamsun's <i>In Wonderland</i> <p>The article focuses on the transgressive quality of Hamsun’s <em>In Wonderland</em>, that is on the book’s variety of literary genres and narrative techniques, and on the narrator’s equally transgressive presentation of himself. To examine these qualities more specifically, the paper discusses to what extent Hamsun’s travelogue is indebted to the novel that, according to Martin Nag, was essential for Hamsun’s journey to the Caucasus, namely Mikhail Lermontov’s <em>A Hero of Our Time</em>(1840)<em>.</em> This will include an investigation of similarities of genre as well as similarities between Lermontov’s protagonist Pechorin and the narrator in <em>In Wonderland</em>, both of whom are discussed in relation to the Russian tradition of so-called “superfluous men”.</p> Peter Fjågesund Copyright (c) 2020 Peter Fjågesund 2020-12-09 2020-12-09 47 93 105 10.7557/13.5263 «[E]n utmærket dagbok» <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-US">This article examines how the Norwegian author Knut Hamsun deploys sketches and sketch aesthetics in his early prose from the 1890s to the early 1900s. If the sketch via Alison Byerly’s «Effortless Art: The Sketch in Nineteenth-Century Painting and Literature» can be applied as a term for determining genre, it can also be used to examine sketch-techniques, and to scrutinize an aesthetic. The sketch is also a memento for remembrance (</span><span lang="EN-US">aide-mémoire</span><span lang="EN-US">), and Hamsun’s wide array of sketch-techniques can be hallmarked not only as a modernistic impulse, but also as a way of writing complex literary prose. He assimilated several models and preliminary works in his published books, and in novels such as </span><span lang="EN-US">Hunger</span><span lang="EN-US"> (1890) and </span><span lang="EN-US">Mysteries</span><span lang="EN-US"> (1892) the critic can use the sketch to further recontextualise and close read Hamsun’s prose. In the travelogue </span><span lang="EN-US">In Wonderland</span><span lang="EN-US"> (1903) the author directly invokes his own diaries in the published work, and the article shows how these private sketches are vital in creating a specific dialogue in the work which not only structures the story being told in the book, but highlights the importance of sketch-writing in an attempt to create both accomplished art and a metapoetic tendency that enriches the prose.</span></p> Morten Auklend Copyright (c) 2020 Morten Auklend 2020-12-09 2020-12-09 47 106 122 10.7557/13.5654 Hamsuns avvæpning <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-US">The article enlightens first how a main reason why Hamsun wrote </span><span lang="EN-US">On Overgrown Paths</span><span lang="EN-US"> was that he desperately needed money. He needed income from a new book, on a large scale. Hamsun’s popularity after the war was still low – so the new book had to motivate a reader right from the start, to go on reading. </span><span lang="EN-US">On Overgrown Paths</span><span lang="EN-US"> fulfilled this aim 100%, and the article goes on to show how. Two different, intertwined writing strategies are working in the book: First, a text type dominating from the start, a chronological report style with characteristics also from diary, with disarming effect on the reader. Throughout the book a fabulating and poetic style develops, which breaks up chronology. It dominates in the last part and enables the reader to experience, revive, enjoy and be affected by typical features of the voice of the author Knut Hamsun. </span></p> Alvhild Dvergsdal Copyright (c) 2020 Alvhild Dvergsdal 2020-12-09 2020-12-09 47 123 138 10.7557/13.5652 Hamsuns litterære geografi <p>This article examines the works of Knut Hamsun from a geographical perspective by using GIS-technology and digital methods.</p> Frode Lerum Boasson Lars G. Johnsen Copyright (c) 2020 Frode Lerum Boasson, Lars G. Johnsen 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 47 139 154 10.7557/13.5725 Hamsun’s “mal du siècle” <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-US">My paper expands on several conference themes, specifically “geographical places” and “boundaries,” and will explore the elasticity and intertextual implications of both terms as they apply to national literatures and writers, as well as their porous nature in literary studies (including theory, history, and criticism, according to René Wellek’s classic and still widely accepted triptych of literary studies [Wellek x]). Specifically, I will examine the resonance of the Romantic malaise known in France as “le mal du siècle” and how it might inform a reading of Knut Hamsun’s novel&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">Pan</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;(1894) and shed light on the more than eccentric behavior of its main character, Lieutenant Glahn. The French Romantic writer Chateaubriand (1768-1848), whose slender novel&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">René</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;(1802), with which “le mal du siècle” is most closely associated, represents the epitome of the Romantic hero, who evidently had not drawn his last breath when Hamsun published&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">Pan</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;almost one century later. Upon a closer reading of the two novels, there is more than enough to warrant a comparison. Glahn and René are archetypes of a similar malady afflicting overly sensitive, generally upper-class young men of a nervous and indeed neurotic</span></p> <p class="Avsnittuteninnrykk">disposition.</p> Tom Conner Copyright (c) 2020 Tom Conner 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 47 155 170 10.7557/13.5626 Over lande- og sjangergrenser <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-US">The aim of this article is to present how Knut Hamsun’s works travel across the political borders, but also across genre frontiers, that is: how his epic texts have functioned on the Polish scenes. The article begins with a historical presentation of Hamsun’s works in Polish translation from the 1890’s until today. Next, a list over all the Polish dramatizations of his novels is presented and discussed. Two stage productions, that is </span><span lang="EN-US">Tangen </span><span lang="EN-US">(2005, directed by Łukasz Witt-Michałowski) and </span><span lang="EN-US">Knut Hamsun’s Hunger </span><span lang="EN-US">(</span><span lang="EN-US">Głód Knuta Hamsuna</span><span lang="EN-US">, 2010, realized by Łukasz Witt-Michałowski og Ryszard Kalinowski) is closely analyzed, with regards to the technical solutions and approaches used in the performances and the theatre theories those solutions or approaches result from. The article also describes how both the productions were received by the Polish theatre critics.</span></p> Karolina Drozdowska Copyright (c) 2020 Karolina Drozdowska 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 47 171 186 10.7557/13.5653 Knut Hamsuns <i>Sult</i> på scenen <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-US">The article addresses the issue of adaptation and deals with four scenic versions of Knut Hamsun's Hunger. The theoretical discussion reflects on the difficulties of dramatization and the intricate narrative technique in Hamsun's novel. Based on modern adaptation theory that no longer insists on the premise of the original novel, four different scenic versions are analysed based on how the narrative voice, the urban environment, the people and the artist's existence have been translated from the novel's medium into drama. In the article I comment on the selected Hunger adaptations. The analysis shows that most adaptations are interested in shaping the Hunger hero's inner monologue on stage. On the other hand, the writer’s block and the hero's wandering in the big city, that are such central motifs in the novel, are not always emphasized. The overall purpose of the article is to raise the academic attention on the numerous dramatizations of Hamsun's novels.</span></p> Zsófia Domsa Copyright (c) 2020 Zsófia Domsa 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 47 187 202 10.7557/13.5646 «Noget af et eksperiment» <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-US">Hamsun’s novel is composed as short state- and mood-oriented chapters, contains two contrasting first person narrators, four different time levels, and displays an emphasis on memory, dream, the unconscious and the irrational. The characters, especially the protagonists Glahn and Edvarda, appear to lack clear motives, and the plot composition is vague and open. Such a composition is challenging to adapt into a film, and differs greatly from both the artistic conventions in contemporary Norwegian peasant and rural films, and from the emerging Hollywood style and what would eventually become the classic film narrative. The main questions asked in this article are how these challenges are solved, what characterizes Schwenzen’s film as an adaptation of Hamsun’s novel, and how the adaptation relates to Norwegian film history and to the history of the novel’s reception and interpretation. An important point in the article is that the adaptation adopts the novel’s modernist narrative and form, and that the melodramatic means of the silent film reinforce crucial innovative modernist aspects adopted from the novel.</span></p> Lisbeth Pettersen Wærp Copyright (c) 2020 Lisbeth P. Wærp 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 47 203 224 10.7557/13.5696 Ødemarken – Det herreløse land <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-US">The article examines the relationship between man and nature in Knut Hamsun's Growth of the soil (1917) and Stina Aronson's This Side of Heaven (1946). Combining an ecocritical and a postcolonial perspective, a set of ideologically charged notions associated with the northern wilderness come in to light. Through depictions of farmers, landscapes, animals, Sámi characters and supernatural elements, the analysis highlights both anthropocentric and colonial tendencies as well as a questioning of the perceived power structures between these actors. Thus, the article can also be regarded a contribution to an ongoing discussion of Hamsun's controversial Nobel Prize-winning novel as an ecological text. The comparative and situated approach helps widen the ecocritical perspective, especially regarding the status of the Sámi in the text.</span></p> Beatrice M. G. Reed Copyright (c) 2020 Beatrice M. G. Reed 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 47 225 236 10.7557/13.5639 “Hamsun's Liminality” <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-US">This study seeks to establish the extent to which </span><span lang="EN-US">In Wonderland </span><span lang="EN-US">is a cultural hybridity discourse and a writing-back to Euro-American travelogues. In this ‘different’ travelogue, Hamsun’s voice cuts through the borderlands of the Russian colonized Caucasus region to reveal contempt for acquired culture and a rejection of global uniform identities in a manner that accords with Homi Bhabha’s concept of ‘hybridity.’ While keeping in mind Hamsun’s undisputed parodic style, this postcolonial reading claims that mimicry, as applied by Hamsun, is a practical demonstration of Bhabha’s theory that reflects his propensity to destabilize the West’s monolithic stance as regards the Orient. It therefore reveals the manner in which his supposedly colonial discourse exposes the discriminatory nature of colonial dominance. Within this context, Hamsun has become a cultural hybrid who refuses to imitate conventional European travel narratives or follow in their differentiating paths. On the whole, the basic argument is that Hamsun’s travelogue which invariably asserts, subverts and removes boundaries, does not endorse Orientalism neither in its romantic nor in its subservient form. </span></p> Soha El Samad Copyright (c) 2020 Soha El Samad 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 47 237 251 10.7557/13.5640 Crossing the Borders of the Literary Markets <p>Without any doubt, Knut Hamsun has earned the status as one of the most prominent Norwegian representatives of world literature as his works were and still are widely translated and distributed internationally. Crucial to the author’s international recognition was his own border-crossing away from Norway, not least to one of the literary centres of the time, Paris, where Hamsun stayed two times between April 1893 and June 1895. Here, he got acquainted with his future German publisher, Albert Langen. Allegedly, Albert Langen Verlag was even founded because of Hamsun. Nevertheless, Hamsun’s first book publication in German translation appeared at S. Fischer Verlag. Both publishing houses were explicitly renowned for their dissemination of Scandinavian literature in translation. This article focuses on the main implications of the early transmission, dissemination and circulation of Hamsun’s works in Germany and the key figures involved in it.</p> Monica Wenusch Copyright (c) 2020 Monica Wenusch 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 47 252 265 10.7557/13.5588 Tuberkulose som tegn på virkelighet i Hamsuns <i>Victoria</i> (1898) <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-US">In Knut Hamsun´s novel </span><span lang="EN-US">Victoria</span><span lang="EN-US"> (1898) the female protagonist Victoria dies of tuberculosis only 23 years old. Victoria is one of Hamsun´s best known and most widely read novels, however the presence of tuberculosis has been scarcely elaborated. I would like to discuss how the rendering of tuberculosis in the novel corresponds with Hamsun´s own experience of the disease, as well as with its historical and cultural presence. Inspired by Roland Barthes´ concept of realityeffect, I will discuss how medical and historical facts are either integrated or transformed by means of the novel´s plot. Victoria has traditionally been considered a less central character than Johannes. Paying attention to the presence of tuberculosis, both as a historical and medical reality effect, I will bring to light the rendering of Victoria as a female character experiencing liberation and authenticity due to her terminal illness.</span></p> Linda Hamrin Nesby Copyright (c) 2020 Linda Nesby 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 47 266 284 10.7557/13.5656 «Walk Away!» <p>In May 1929, an international ‘Convention of Vagabonds’ (Vagabundentreffen) was held in the German city of Stuttgart. Along with a number of other well-known authors, one of the invited literati was the Norwegian Nobel laureate Knut Hamsun. Hamsun did not show up, but he kindly acknowledged the invitation with a greeting to organizers and the flamboyant collection of attendees. This incident shows, firstly, how big a name Hamsun was in anarchist and communist circles in the interwar period, as they had invited him and, secondly, that he must have been sympathetic to vagabondism, which in the light of the subsequent development in Hamsun’s political stance is quite remarkable. Already in his earliest articles and essays from the 1880s, Hamsun had dealt with mobile, socially disadvantaged individuals, especially in the years when he himself lived in the United States. In Hamsun’s entire oeuvre, wanderers, travelers, hobo’s and ‘rootless’ people can be found everywhere, e.g. in Sult (Hunger) (1890), in the so-called ‘August trilogy’ (1927-1933) and in his last, the autobiographical hybrid Paa gjengrodde Stier (On Overgrown Paths) from 1949, just to mention a few. This article examines how the figure of the vagabond functions as a vehicle for Hamsun’s critique of modernity in various texts from different phases in Hamsun’s authorship. The point of departure is one of his early memoir essays from the 1880s, the focus then shifts to the first two novels in the August trilogy (1927-1933) – at the core of Hamsun’s authorship – and finally his last book, the autobiographical On Overgrown Paths is discussed.</p> Henk van der Liet Copyright (c) 2020 Henk van der Liet 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 47 285 303 10.7557/13.5633 Hamsuns <i>I Æventyrland</i> sett i et «grenselandsperspektiv» <p>It is common knowledge that Hamsun is concerned with border themes. He crosses, breaks, dissolves or draws new boundaries, both geographically, genre-wise and biographically. Hamsun’s In Wonderland. Experienced and dreamt in the Caucasus (1903) is characteristic in this respect. The work describes the journey through Russia and Caucasus, but at the same time we follow a journey into the narrator’s inner nature too. There is no real boundary between reality and fantasy in the book. Everything is mixed with Hamsunic aesthetic ingenuity. The border perspective manifests itself in the book on a number of levels. Geographically, since he crosses the Great Caucasus, then his blurring of the boundary between dream and reality in the portrayal of himself as the book’s first-person, etc.</p> <p>In Hamsun’s time the South Caucasus was part of the Russian Empire and divided into governorates. Tbilisi was the administrative centre of the entire Caucasus and the seat of the tsar’s governor. The governorate boundaries do not exist for Hamsun. He draws his own boundaries between what he experiences as Oriental and what he experiences as Western, both topographically, religiously and culturally. He shows an obvious love for everything non-Western and non-Christian. This is the way he creates so to speak his own “Orientalism" in the book.</p> Kakhaber Loria Copyright (c) 2020 Khakaber Loria 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 47 304 316 10.7557/13.5658 Interpreting America in the Works of Knut Hamsun and Johannes V. Jensen <p class="Sammendrag"><span lang="EN-GB">The USA had an significant influence on the Nobel Prize-Winning authors Johannes V. Jensen and Knut Hamsun. Both authors spent significant amounts of time in America and subsequently expressed their thoughts and opinions on the country in the form of books and articles. Their diverging views on the topics of technological advancements and America’s future role in the world, serve to capture a small but significant part of the larger debate on America’s role in the Nordic countries in the early 20th century</span></p> Vincent Rasmussen Copyright (c) 2020 Vincent Rasmussen 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 47 317 325 10.7557/13.5341 Takk til fagfeller Ingri Løkholm Ramberg Linda Hamrin Nesby Henrik Johnsson Copyright (c) 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 47 326 327 10.7557/13.5731 Kolofon Linda Nesby Ingri Løkholm Ramberg Henrik Johnsson Copyright (c) 2021 Linda Nesby, Ingri Løkholm Ramberg, Henrik Johnsson 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 47 10.7557/13.5746 Preface (in Norwegian) Ingri Løkholm Ramberg Henrik Johnsson Linda Hamrin Nesby Copyright (c) 2020 Ingri Løkholm Ramberg, Henrik Johnsson, and Linda Hamrin Nesby 2020-11-11 2020-11-11 47 i–ii i–ii 10.7557/13.5655