Nordlit <p><em>Nordlit</em> er et <em>open-access</em>-tidsskrift for nordisk litteratur og kultur som gis ut av Institutt for språk og kultur ved Fakultet for humaniora, samfunnsvitenskap og lærerutdanning, UiT Norges arktiske universitet.</p> Septentrio Academic Publishing nb-NO Nordlit 0809-1668 Forfattere som publiserer i dette tidsskriftet aksepterer følgende vilkår:<br /><br /><ol type="a"><li>Forfattere beholder copyright og gir tidsskriftet retten til første publisering samtidig som verket lisensieres med en <a href=""><span style="color: #ca006c;">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International lisens</span></a> som tillater andre å dele verket, forutsatt at verkets forfatter og første publisering i tidsskriftet erkjennes.</li><li>Forfattere kan inngå separate, ikke-eksklusive avtaler om annen distribusjon av tidsskriftets publiserte utgave av verket (f.eks. egenarkivering i et vitenarkiv eller publisering i en bok), så lenge førstepubliseringen i tidsskriftet erkjennes.</li><li>Forfattere tillates og oppmuntres til å gjøre verket tilgjengelig på nettet (f.eks. i et vitenarkiv eller på andre nettsider) før og under innlevering, da dette kan lede til nyttige menings- og kunnskapsutvekslinger og til tidligere og mer sitering av det publiserte verket. (Se <a href="" target="_new"><span style="color: #ca006c;">The Effect of Open Access</span></a>).</li></ol> Introducing Svalbard Studies Leonid S. Chekin Andrei Rogatchevski Opphavsrett 2020 Leonid Chekin, Andrei Rogatchevski 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 45 1–3 1–3 10.7557/13.4990 Maps and Geographical Names as Tokens of National Interests <p>The treaty of 9 February 1920 granted Norway full sovereignty over the ‘Archipelago of Spitsbergen’, by which name this Arctic territory was known at the time. Assuming sovereignty five years later, Norway altered the official name to ‘Svalbard’. To what extent was the name-change a token of national interests or even blatant nationalism? This paper outlines the origin and usage of the place-names Spitsbergen and Svalbard in light of the area’s mapping and nomenclature and with an emphasis on national bias. It briefly discusses the different practices and principles of geographical naming. This paper proposes that the change in official nomenclature from Spitsbergen to Svalbard in 1924–1925, though partly due to justifiable practical considerations, was primarily a political act to construct national bonds with the newly won territory. Although perceived as part of a ‘Norwegianization’ process in the northern regions, the name-change itself was not intended to provoke foreign reactions, but rather to satisfy a domestic audience.</p> Thor Bjørn Arlov Opphavsrett 2020 Thor Bjørn Arlov 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 45 4–17 4–17 10.7557/13.4994 Svalbarðs fundr <p>The paper analyses medieval forms of the name Svalbard as applied to the land “discovered” in 1194, suggests that this Arctic discovery could have been named after a farmstead in Iceland, and follows the story of the name by discussing its contexts in medieval and modern literature and on maps. However little information about Svalbard survived in the Icelandic annals, the Landnámabók, and related texts, it became part of competing visions of the Arctic, from the late medieval Samsons saga fagrathrough the adoption of Svalbard as the name of a new territory under Norwegian rule in 1925.</p> Leonid S. Chekin Opphavsrett 2020 Leonid S. Chekin 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 45 18–38 18–38 10.7557/13.5025 Cruise Tourists in Spitsbergen around 1900 <p>This article examines the early commodification of the Arctic, using emerging cruise tourism to Spitsbergen as an example. Its objective is to investigate how an Arctic tourism discourse emerged around 1900 and what its central characteristics were. Covering the period between 1893, when German Arctic cruise tourism took off, and&nbsp;1914, the article argues that early cruise tourists drew on exploration, adventure and leisure discourses in order to frame their experiences. However, unlike explorers and explorer travellers (Laing and Frost 2014), they wished only to a limited extent to experience adventure themselves, or report transformative experiences due to the sublime landscape; rather, the travel narratives indicate that they were interested above all in observing adventure, this process being facilitated by the advanced technology and luxurious lifestyle of the cruise ships. As the article demonstrates, this ambivalence between images of a wild, uncontrolled and sublime Arctic and an Arctic controlled by modern technology and modern life helped to map the Arctic as a tourism space.</p> Ulrike Spring Opphavsrett 2020 Andrei Rogatchevski 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 45 39–55 39–55 10.7557/13.5026 Svalbard and Conflict Management in a Changing Climate <p>Conflict in the Arctic is nothing new, and Svalbard is a geographical confluence of factors that create the potential for inter-group violence. The purpose of this paper is to explore those factors, identifying approaches to the evaluation of their associated risk. The emphasis is on biomarine resources, which at present constitute the most likely focus for escalating disputes. Contributory factors, including the catalytic effects of climate change, will also be considered. Given the political progress that has been achieved recently, the most likely situation for an intense interstate conflict in the short term is one that spreads <strong>to</strong>the Arctic, rather than one igniting within it. However, as the century progresses, dormant problems relating to the Svalbard archipelago will combine with environmental, economic and political trends to exacerbate conflict risk. Traditionally, armed conflict has been viewed as a phenomenon that cannot be predicted. This view is identified as dangerously misleading. Using a risk based approach and noting advances in analytical techniques, representative scenarios in which conflict may occur are examined and prospective methods of risk management identified.</p> John Ash Opphavsrett 2020 John Ash 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 45 56–85 56–85 10.7557/13.5027 Svalbard’s Haunted Landscapes <p>Cultural landscapes represent social structures, interests, and values. At the same time, the observer can derive, interpret, reinterpret, and inscribe new meanings to the landscape. Landscapes that are saturated with ideologically charged symbols dictate to the viewer what can and cannot be seen and derived from them. On the other hand, landscapes that are abandoned, ruined, partly erased, and deprived of actors, activities, and political context present a different sort of setting. What can be derived from them? What or whom do they represent? Can the current conceptualisations help to capture their meanings? This paper attempts to expand the debate on cultural landscapes, by exploring the linkages to the concepts of haunting and ghosts. It uses the Russian settlements of Barentsburg, Pyramiden and Grumant, located in Svalbard (Norway), as an example. The paper argues that ruined and abandoned landscapes are ‘haunted’, and that the viewer can engage with a haunted landscape through interactions with ‘ghosts’ – fictitious agents that fulfil two roles: i) allowing the viewer to associate with the ghost, and ii) reminding the viewer of the bygone actors, forces, and contexts that shaped the landscape.</p> Nadir Kinossian Opphavsrett 2020 Nadir Kinossian 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 45 86–103 86–103 10.7557/13.5028 Photographs of the Soviet Settlements on Svalbard <p>Photographic recordings from the 1950s–1970s give us glimpses into the Soviet settlements on Svalbard during the Cold War period. The majority of these pictures have been taken by Norwegians during friendly exchanges with the inhabitants in Barentsburg and Pyramiden, and demonstrate how important culture and sport were as a contact zone. These pictures also testify that the Soviets invested more seriously in their welfare, culture, education and family life on Svalbard than the Norwegians did.&nbsp;Photography seems to be a way of seeing, meeting and understanding others, and a way of confirming the existence of a common world on Svalbard.&nbsp;However, the Soviet Consul’s strict control of photographing practices may be seen as part of a propagandizing regime, in line with the Soviet imagery which spread even to this remote Arctic place. Owing to the cultural museums’ digitizing projects and to private sharing on social media, photographs from this period have become increasingly available, but without rules or guiding principles as to how to put them together and interpret them. Thus, to the contemporary viewer these images offer the possibility to make visual montages, and to reveal the singular image’s meanings well beyond both the Soviet authorities’ and the photographer's control. This article, while making such a montage, discusses how photography might shape and change our historical understanding of people and places.</p> Elin Haugdal Opphavsrett 2020 Elin Haugdal 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 45 104–138 104–138 10.7557/13.5029 The <i>Poliarnaia Kochegarka</i> Newspaper as a Source on the Soviet Mining on Spitsbergen in the 1930–1980s <p>Copies of the Poliarnaia kochegarkanewspaper, published by the Russian/Soviet mining trust Arktikugol and stored in the State Archive of the Murmansk Region (GAMO), contain a wealth of material which emerged after a systematic coverage, for nearly half a century, of various aspects of the development of the Svalbard (Spitsbergen) archipelago, from Stalin’s times to the late Soviet period. In the newspaper, one can find a wide range of topics and genres, from the official publications both at the state and the local levels to sketches of polar dwellers’ everyday life. Poliarnaia kochegarka’s articles help readers to trace the development of Arktikugol’s capacities and the formation of normal living conditions in the Soviet Arctic settlements on the archipelago. Poliarnaia kochegarkaalso contains many observations on the Norwegian mines on Svalbard. Its particular interest, however, consists in various historical surveys and the information about the international contacts on the archipelago.</p> Aleksandr Portsel Opphavsrett 2020 Aleksandr Portsel 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 45 139–149 139–149 10.7557/13.4992 Svalbard on the (Post-)Soviet Screen <p>A selection of Soviet/Russian and Norwegian documentary and feature films about Svalbard is analysed to account for the recurrent issues raised in cinematic representations of the archipelago. Such issues primarily include Svalbard’s ownership and demilitarization, as well as the role that women – and Russia – play in the region. The subject of these representations’ verisimilitude is also discussed. The article concludes that both film groups show a mutually observed parallel reality.</p> Andrei Rogatchevski Opphavsrett 2020 Andrei Rogatchevski 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 45 150–174 150–174 10.7557/13.4993 Svalbard as a Motif and a Place of Artistic Exploration <p><span lang="EN-US">The article outlines the history of artists’ exploration of Svalbard as a motif, and then proceeds to describe a number of more recent art practices by the artists relating to Svalbard in the new millennium. The article traces the artists’ development from being supporters of research by providing visual material, to becoming researchers in their own right.</span></p> Jan Martin Berg Opphavsrett 2020 Jan Martin Berg 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 45 175–191 175–191 10.7557/13.5032