Rangifer 2019-07-04T09:32:06+02:00 Eva Wiklund Open Journal Systems Rangifer is the world's only scientific journal dealing exclusively with biology and management of arctic and northern ungulates, reindeer and caribou in particular. Rangifer publishes original research papers, review articles and brief communications in all themes and fields related to the animal reindeer/caribou and reindeer husbandry as culture and industry, and also papers on other northern ungulates. Influence of wolf predation on population momentum of the Nushagak Peninsula caribou herd, southwestern Alaska 2019-06-21T09:31:08+02:00 Patrick Walsh James Woolington <p>We investigated wolf predation as a potential driver of population change in the Nushagak Peninsula caribou herd, southwestern Alaska. We investigated the time budgets of three wolf packs using the peninsula from 2007 through 2012, and thus potentially preying on caribou there, in order to make inferences on their likelihood of serving as an important population modifier for the Nushagak Peninsula caribou herd. We found that only one pack regularly used the peninsula. The pack using the peninsula spent an average of 35% of its time there. Its use of the peninsula was disproportionately high in late summer and fall, disproportionately low in winter, and proportional during the caribou calving season in early summer. Overall wolf use of the Nushagak Peninsula increased in direct response to increasing caribou abundance but was not a primary population driver.</p> 2019-06-20T10:11:45+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Patrick Walsh Metric and non-metric guides for the determination between fore- and hindlimb phalanges of Rangifer tarandus 2019-07-04T09:32:06+02:00 Emily H Hull <p>Phalanges are a great untapped resource in the zooarchaeology of <em>Rangifer tarandus</em>. The utilization of this resource, however, is constrained by a current inability to consistently differentiate fore- from hindlimb phalanges in a mixed assemblage. The ability to separate and identify forelimb and hindlimb phalanx 1 (PI) and phalanx 2 (PII), as well as to recognize and identify other small bones of the hoof, leads to great opportunities for archaeologists. In large scale-analysis, this capacity allows a greater ability to determine minimum number of individuals and assess butchery and transport practices. In the examination of individual life histories of <em>Rangifer tarandus</em>, these designations allow a more precise study of pathology and entheseal change, which can shed light on adaptation, foraging strategy, and human-animal interactions. This study presents qualitative and quantitative methods for the differentiation of PI and PII of the fore- and hindlimbs and describes other bones of the hoof. Metric techniques were developed to differentiate fore- from hindlimb phalanges using non-invasive, non-destructive, and simple methods. The efficacy and accuracy of these methods were assessed using blind testing by students and staff. The average success rates of metric analysis yielded 87% accuracy for determinations of fore- versus hindlimb PI and 92% accuracy for determination of fore- versus hindlimb PII. These results show that this method could benefit researchers working with <em>Rangifer tarandus</em> remains.</p> 2019-07-03T19:16:42+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Emily H Hull