Rangifer https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/rangifer Rangifer is the world's only scientific journal dealing exclusively with biology and management of arctic and northern ungulates, reindeer and caribou in particular. Rangifer publishes original research papers, review articles and brief communications in all themes and fields related to the animal reindeer/caribou and reindeer husbandry as culture and industry, and also papers on other northern ungulates. 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This means, among other things, that anyone is free to copy and distribute the content, as long as they give proper credit to the author(s) and the journal. 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font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} --> <!--[endif] --> The use of a long-acting tranquilizer (zuclopenthixol acetate) and live video monitoring for successful long-distance transport of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/rangifer/article/view/5605 <p>Long-distance transport of caribou (<em>Rangifer tarandus</em>) can result in morbidities and mortalities. This case report describes the use of a long-acting tranquilizer, zuclopenthixol acetate (ZA) and live video monitoring (LVM) to transport caribou over 2300 kilometers. Two groups of captive caribou were transported from Fort St. John, British Columbia to Dryden, Ontario (n=14; 28.5 h transport) and Anchorage, Alaska (n=11; 32 h transport). The day prior to transport, caribou were administered ZA at 1 mg/kg via deep intramuscular (IM) injection. Digital video cameras allowed for live observation of caribou during transport. Still images of videos from each compartment in the Ontario transport were analyzed for percentage (%) lying versus standing over three time periods (Day 1, Night, and Day 2). Overall, caribou spent 57% of the transport lying down, with the highest percentage occurring at night (73%). As group size and animal density decreased there was a trend for caribou to spend more time lying down. Three animals developed extrapyramidal effects to the ZA and were effectively treated with midazolam at 0.2 mg/kg IM. There were no significant visible injuries or mortalities during or up to 6 weeks post-transport. Zuclopenthixol acetate and LVM were used to successfully transport caribou over long distances and should be considered in future translocations to improve animal welfare during transport. </p> Owen Slater Amber Backwell Rachel Cook John Cook Copyright (c) 2021 Owen Slater, Amber Backwell, John Cook, Rachel Cook http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-11-27 2021-11-27 41 1 13 26 10.7557/2.41.1.5605 Monitoring recovery of overgrazed lichen communities on Hagemeister Island, southwestern Alaska https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/rangifer/article/view/5340 <p>Understanding the recovery rate of overgrazed lichen communities has value to mangers of lands in northern regions.&nbsp; We describe lichen community composition and present recovery rate measurements for a 12-year period following overgrazing by reindeer (<em>Rangifer tarandus</em>) on Hagemeister Island, Alaska.&nbsp; Reindeer were removed from the island in 1993 following overgrazing and average total lichen biomass increased from 504.2 kg/ha (SD 205.4) in 2003 to 795.3 (SD 489.6) in 2015. &nbsp;We estimate time to recovery with three competing growth curves which estimate grazeable biomass may be reached in 34-41 years.&nbsp; However, estimates of full recovery to climax biomass varied among the models, ranging from 71 to 400 years.&nbsp;&nbsp; In 2015, lichen communities were composed of various mixtures of at least 78 lichen taxa, and were dominated by <em>Cladina stygia</em> and other important reindeer forage species.&nbsp;&nbsp; While reindeer overgrazing diminished forage quantity, it did not extirpate preferred forage taxa.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Patrick Walsh Trevor Goward Copyright (c) 2021 Patrick Walsh, Trevor Goward 2021-01-14 2021-01-14 41 1 1 12 10.7557/2.41.1.5340