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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, DOIs in URL form for the references have been provided.
  • The manuscript is written using the NAMMCO Manuscript Template for Authors.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

NAMMCO Scientific Publications:

Guidelines for authors (also available in pdf here)


Manuscript Submission

Authors need to submit one electronic copy of the manuscript in Microsoft Word (.doc or docx) format through the NAMMCO Scientific Publications website http://septentrio.uit.no/index.php‌/NAMMCOSP. This requires that the author submitting the manuscript first register as a user. After establishing a user account, instructions for submission will be provided through the online portal. The required information on all authors should also be filled out in the online form when submitting.

Authors are required to write and submit their manuscripts in the NAMMCO Scientific Publications Template for Authors (available at https://nammco.no/topics/scientific-publication-series/#authors). This template has all the necessary formatting and styles already defined. Further information on this is available in the template itself. Documents that are submitted without using the required template will be returned to the authors.

Note that the template is in the Word Template format (.dotx), however, manuscripts should be saved and submitted in the normal Word format (.docx).

Manuscript Sections
First Page

The first page should state the type of manuscript and contain the title, names of all authors, abstract and keywords.


Author’s names should include first name (or initials), middle name (or initials), and last name. For each author, information on their affiliation is also required. This should include the name of the department (where appropriate) and university or organization, as well as the city and country. One author should be designated as the “corresponding author,” and an email address should also be included for this author.


The paper must include an abstract that does not exceed 350 words. This abstract should include information on the objectives, methods, results and major conclusions of the work. Citations should not be used in the abstract.

The scientific name of a species should be included in brackets in italics the first time it is referred to.


Authors are requested to provide 8-10 keywords for the manuscript.

Body of the article

Papers reporting original research should be organised in sections entitled Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion and Conclusions.

Review articles may deviate from this format.

The Introduction should include the motivation or purpose of the research and state the research questions that are addressed.

The Materials and Methods section should provide sufficient information to allow someone to repeat the work. A clear description of the experimental design, sampling procedures and statistical methods should be included.

Results should be stated concisely and without interpretation.

The Discussion and Conclusions section should present an interpretation of the results and a description of how they support or diverge from those of other sources. It should also present the conclusions drawn from the research.

For all research involving animals, a section on Adherence to Animal Welfare Protocols should be placed after the main body of the text. This should include a statement that the research presented has been done in accordance with the institutional and/or national animal welfare laws and protocols applicable in the jurisdiction/s in which the work was conducted. Reference numbers for any approvals obtained from ethical advisory boards or committees should also be stated.

Acknowledgements (for assistance and/or funding) can be placed directly before the section for References.

The References section should contain a full list of all works cited in the text. Further details on the style for citations and referencing is provided below.

Manuscript Formatting & Style

There is a template available here that contains all of the required manuscript formatting and styles. All authors should use this template to submit their final revised manuscript. Information regarding the formatting requirements is, however, also described below. 


Authors are required to use the NAMMCO Scientific Publications Template for Authors for their manuscripts. This template contains all the formatting required and has predefined styles. If you are unfamiliar with Word styles, please see this guide: https://www.dummies.com/software/microsoft-office/how-to-apply-styles-and-style-sets-in-word-2019/. Note that the author template styles cannot be modified.

Page numbers

All pages, beginning with the second page, should be numbered in the bottom right hand corner with no period following the number, as per the template.


Manuscript headings should adhere to the following format:

PRIMARY HEADING (all capitals, bold, NAMMCO green)

Secondary heading (sentence case, bold and underlined)

Tertiary heading (sentence case, bold)

4th heading (sentence case, underlined)

5th heading (sentence case, italics)

The format of all headings and text is found in the defined styles of the template.


Nouns and collective terms should be written in small letters (seals, beaked whales, monodontids).

Hyphens can be used for terms (e.g. strap‑toothed whale, short‑snouted spinner dolphin), but should not be used for words at the end of lines.

Descriptive terms and jargon that may be familiar only to specialists in the field should be avoided.

Italics should be used to highlight words in foreign languages, including scientific names and symbols for all variables and constants except Greek letters.

Scientific names of all organisms should be given (in brackets and italics) the first time that they are mentioned. After this the common English names should be used.

Footnotes are not accepted.

Measurements and their designated abbreviations should be given according to the International System of Units (SI), but if the original measurements are made in non‑SI units, the actual values and the units should be given with SI equivalents inserted in parentheses.

Abbreviations of statistical terms should conform to the sixth edition of the CBE Style Manual (which may be purchased from the Council of Biology Editors, 111 e. Wacker Drive, Suite 200, Chicago, IL 60601‑4298 USA).

Numbers should be written as in the following examples: 1; 1.21; 1,000; 1,000,000. In scientific text, Arabic numerals should be used in preference to words when the number designates anything that can be counted or measured (e.g. 3 hypotheses, 7 samples). Ordinal numbers are treated in the same manner as cardinal numbers (e.g. 5th, 3rd). Numerals are also used to designate mathematical relationships such as ratios and multiplication factors (e.g. 5:1, 1000 times (or 1000×), 4-fold).

One of the exceptions to the use of numerals is that numerals are not used to begin a sentence. The second exception is when 2 numeric expressions are adjacent in a sentence. The number easiest to express in words should be spelled out and the other left in numeric form. In general, it is preferable to retain the numeric form for units of measurement.

Decades should be written without apostrophes, e.g. 1970s or 1890s.

Coefficients of Variation (CV) and Confidence Intervals (CI)

For manuscripts containing abundance estimates, the following examples present the correct ways to provide information on CV and CI:

  • The average combined platform probability of sighting a whale was 0.87 (CV=0.03)
  • The total corrected estimate was 9,867 (95% CI: 4,854 – 20,058)
  • The total uncorrected estimate was 31,953 (CV=0.17, 95% CI: 22,536 – 45,306)

Manuscripts with equations should enter the equations using the Insert → Equation function in Microsoft Word .docx documents. If using an older version of Microsoft Word, the Equation editor function should be used. The equations style in the template should also be used for formatting.


For religious neutrality, NAMMCO Scientific Publications uses BCE and CE as alternatives to the Dionysian BC (“before Christ”) and AD (“Anno Domini”) system for distinguishing eras. This means CE (common era) should be used instead of AD, and BCE (before common era) rather than BC.

Figures and Tables

All tables and figures must be submitted as separate files through the website, as well as included in separate sections at the end of the document. They should not be integrated into the main body of the article.

Tables submitted for publication should be included in a format such as .docx, .rtf, or .tex. Tables should be prepared using the Table facility of word processing programs, or using a spreadsheet program. Tables should not be formatted using spaces and tabs. Tables should be combined whenever feasible to reduce redundancies and the minimum number of horizontal and vertical dividing necessary for clarity should be used. Decimal points of numbers in columns should be aligned.

Figures need to be high resolution TIFF or EPS files. For information on how to convert other file types to TIFF format, see: http://www.plosone.org/static/figureGuidelines.action#tiff. Line artwork (vector graphics) should be saved and sent as Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) files and bitmap files (halftones or photographic images) as Tagged Image Format (TIFF), with a resolution of at least 300 dpi at final size.

Multi-panel figures (those with parts A, B, C, and D) and multi-part figures should be submitted as a single file that contains all parts of the figure (i.e. pieces of the figure cannot be separated when copy/pasted, etc.).

All figures and tables must be referred to in the text of the article, as in the following examples: (Figure 1); (Table 2); "Figure 3 illustrates..."; "...as shown in Table 4". Figures and tables should also be numbered consecutively in 2 different series, one for figures and another for tables.

Figure and table legends should be short, precise, informative and strictly connected to the individual figure/table, to facilitate that it may be read and understood in isolation from its context within the body of the text.

The text of the figure and table legends for should be written in the figure and table caption styles specified in the template. Sample figures and tables are shown below.

Supplementary Files

Extensive or detailed data sets or statistical information may be included as Supplementary Files. Supplementary Files should be uploaded through the journal website as separate files in any of the following formats: Word (.doc), Excel (.xls), PDF, PPT, JPG, EPS, or TIFF.

Legends to Tables

Table 1. Completed and projected future volumes of NAMMCO Scientific Publications.



Completion Date

Ringed Seals in the North Atlantic

M.P. Heide-Jørgensen and C. Lydersen


Minke Whales, Harp and Hooded Seals: Major Predators in the North Atlantic Ecosystem

G. Vikingsson and F.O. Kapel


Sealworms in the North Atlantic: Ecology and Population Dynamics

G. Desportes and G. McClelland


Belugas in the North Atlantic and the Russian Arctic

M.P. Heide-Jørgensen and Ø. Wiig.


Harbour Porpoises in the North Atlantic

T. Haug, G. Víkingsson, L. Witting and G. Desportes


Grey Seals in the North Atlantic and the Baltic

T. Haug, M. Hammill and D. Ólafsdóttir


Cetacean Abundance in the North Atlantic: The North Atlantic Sightings Surveys

C. Lockyer and D. Pike


Harbour Seals in the North Atlantic

G. Desportes, A. Bjørge, A. Rosing-Asvid and G. Waring



Legends to Figures

Citations and References

NAMMCO has adopted the APA style as a standard for the formatting of citations and references. The authors are responsible for the accuracy of all citations both in the text and in the list of References according to this style. While an overview of the formatting requirements is provided below, for more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

NAMMCO encourages authors to use one of the available software programs for the management of in text citations and reference lists. This will be the easiest and fastest way to ensure that the formatting of all references is done correctly. This can include common programs supported by educational institutions such as EndNote or Reference Manager, or alternatively programs such as Zotero that are available online and can be downloaded for free.

As a general rule, only published material should be cited and only literature cited in the text should be included in the list of References. However, citation of personal observations by the author of the present paper (personal observation), personal communications from others (personal communication), unpublished data and unpublished written material (e.g. working group papers) are acceptable at the discretion of the editors. Such citations should not, however, be used to support critical components of the article and should not be listed in the References. It is the author's responsibility to obtain permission to cite unpublished material.

In-text citations

Citations in the text should be given in parentheses and should include author surname followed by a comma and the year (Sergeant, 1965).

For two authors, the surnames should be combined using the & symbol in parentheses (Lydersen & Kovacs, 1992).

For up to 5 authors, the first in text citation should provide all author surnames and year (Sharp, Aarons, Wittenberg, & Gittens, 2007) but will be abbreviated to the first author surname plus et al. (not italicised and with a period after the al) in following citations (Sharp et al., 2007).

For 6 authors or more, the surname of the first author should be followed by et al. (not italicised and with a period after the al) and the year (Nordøy et al., 1995).

Multiple citations should be arranged alphabetically and appear in the same order they would appear in the reference list. Works by different authors will be separated by semi colons (Bowen et al., 1987; Desportes et al., 1993; Sergeant 1965) while works by the same author will be separated by a comma between the years (Smart, 2002, 2007, 2015).

When the name of an author is used directly in the sentence, only the year should be cited in parentheses. For example, “Johnson (2007) found diving depths varied significantly with season”. If the same reference is to be cited again within the same paragraph, the year does not need to be included if the author surname is used within the sentence. However, the year should always be included when the reference is given in parentheses and for any citation of the work in subsequent paragraphs.

Where the use of et al. creates ambiguity because the same first author and year are used for more than one reference, as many author names as are necessary to distinguish between the two should be used in the in text citation (Marewski, Stone & White, 2007) (Marewski, Stone, Schuler et al., 2007). If it happens that all the author names are exactly the same and the studies were published in the same year as well, et al. as usual should be used but also lowercase letters after the year included (2010a, 2010b, etc.). If there are two primary authors sharing the same surname, the first author’s initials should be included in all citations so as to avoid confusion, even if the year of publication differs.

For personal communications, a first initial as well as a surname, institute and a precise date should be included in the in-text citation (personal communication C. Winsnes, NAMMCO, April 27th 2018).

When groups (i.e. corporations, government agencies, organisations etc) serve as authors, these should usually be spelled out completely each time they appear in an in-text citation. However, they can be spelled out the first time and abbreviated thereafter if the name is long and the abbreviation is familiar or readily understandable (International Council for Exploration of the Sea [ICES], 2017), subsequently (ICES, 2017).

When a work has no identified author, the in-text citation should use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. In this case, double quotation marks should be used around the titles of articles, chapters or webpages, while titles from journals, newspapers, books or reports should be italicised – e.g. (“Killer whales in decline”, 2018). In the book Marine Mammals of Russia (2015).

Direct quotations should always include a page number in the in-text citation - When data is absent “such taxa are de facto considered to be not endangered or threatened” (Lowry, Laist & Taylor, 2007, p. 65). Where page numbers are not available but paragraph numbers are (e.g. for online sources) the abbreviation para can be used (Jones, 2007, para. 6).

Reference List

Works cited in the text are listed alphabetically in the reference list by the surname of the first author, with each new entry containing a hanging indent. For references that have a doi or URL, this should be included in the reference list. You can find dois for your entire reference list using the tool found here: https://apps.crossref.org/SimpleTextQuery.

When there are several works by the same first author, these should be ordered by year of publication, with the earliest published appearing first in the list.

Redding, F. (2003)…

Redding, F. (2005)…

However, single author entries will precede multiple author works when both begin with the same surname (even if the multiple author work was published earlier).

Allanby, R. L. (2001)…

Allanby, R. L., & Evans, A. J. (1999)…

For group authors (e.g. associations, agencies or organisations) use the first significant word of the name and order alphabetically in the list according to this. Full official names and not abbreviations should be used in the reference list.

If there is a work with no author, the title is moved to the author position and the entry is alphabetised by the first significant word of the title.

When there are 8 or more authors, the reference list should include the first six authors’ names, then three ellipsis points (…) and the last author’s name. For 2-7 authors, the & symbol should be used before the last author.

If an author’s first name is hyphenated, the hyphen should be kept with a period after each initial (Lamour, J.-B.,)

If a non-English reference is cited as a source, give the title of the work in the original language in the reference list and then, in brackets, the English translation.

Ognetov GN and Potelov VA (1978) Dynamika zakhodov belukhi v Beloje more (Dynamics of the migration of white whales into the White Sea). Ekologija (Ecology). 4:78-85.

For non-latin characters, the order of appearance should be the same as in the language the character is from, e.g. the Norwegian letters Æ, Ø and Å come after Z.

Whitehead, Hal, Brennan, S., & Grover, D. (1992). Distribution and behaviour of male sperm whales on the Scotian Shelf, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 70(5), 912-918. https://doi.org/10.1139/z92-130

Øien, N. (2009). Distribution and abundance of large whales in Norwegian and adjacent waters based on ship surveys 1995-2001. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, 7, 31-47. https://doi.org/10.7557/3.2704

Examples of the format for different sources in the reference list is provided below.

Journal Articles (+ newspapers, magazines and newsletters):

Author, A. A., Author, B., B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, xx, pp. doi:XX.XXXXXXXXXX

Example article without doi:

Härkönen, T. & Isakson, E. (2011). Historical and current status of harbour seals in the Baltic proper. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, 8, 71-76.

Example article with doi:

Goudet, J., Perrin, N., & Waser, P. (2002). Tests for sex-biased dispersal using bi-parentally inherited genetic markers. Molecular Ecology, 11(6), 1103–1114. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-294X.‌2002.01496.x

Example article with URL:

Guo, S. W., & Thompson, E. A. (1992). Performing the exact test for Hardy-Weinberg proportion for multiple alleles. Biometrics, 48(2), 361–372. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2532296

Example article with more than 7 authors:

Desportes, G., Kristensen, J. H., Benham, D., Wilson, S., Jepsen, T., Korsgaard, B., … Shephard, G. (2003). Multiple insights into the reproductive function of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena): An ongoing study. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, 5, 91-106. doi: 10.7557/3.2741

Example advanced online article:

Moran, J. R., Heintz, R. A., Straley, J. M., & Vollenweider, J. J. (2018). Regional variation in the intensity of humpback whale predation on Pacific herring in the Gulf of Alaska. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2017.07.010

Example newsletter article, no author

International meeting delivers scientific advice for the management of hooded seals. (2016, December). The Society for Marine Mammology. Retrieved from https://www.marinemammalscience.org/news/members-newsletter/


Author, A. A. (YEAR). Title of the work. Location: Publisher.

A doi or URL can also be used for online book sources – both single author and edited volumes.

Author, A. A. (YEAR). Title of the work. doi: xxx or Retrieved from xxx.

Härkönen, T. (1986). Guide to the otoliths of the bony fishes of the Northeast Atlantic. Hellerup: Danbiu.

For all books (authored or edited), any information about the edition or volume of the book should be placed in parentheses following the title, e.g. (2nd Ed.)

Edited books:

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (YEAR). Title of the work. Location: Publisher.

Rødseth T. (Ed.). (1998). Models for multispecies management. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag.

Papers in edited books:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1995). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx–xxx). Location: Publisher.

Alternatively, if using URL or doi

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1993). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx–xxx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx or doi: xx.xxx

Ekker, M., Vongraven, D., Jenssen, B. M. & Silverstone, M. (1995). Assessment of the vulnerability of grey seals to oil contamination at Froan, Norway. In A. S. Blix, L. Walløe, & Ø. Ulltang (Eds.), Whales, seals, fish and man (pp. 623-628). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

If there is only 1 editor, use (Ed.). For major reference works with large editorial boards, the name of the first author may be given followed by et al.


Author/Organisation. (YEAR). Title of the work (Report No. xxx). Location: Publisher.


Organisation. (YEAR). Title of the work (Report No. xxx). Retrieved from organisation name website: http://www.xxxx or doi: xx.xxxx.

International Whaling Commission. (1997). Report of the Sub-Committee on the Small Cetaceans. Retrieved from IWC website: https://iwc.int/pubpre1999

Papers & presentations from symposia or meetings:

If the proceedings of meetings or symposia are published in book or periodical form, they should follow the formats for these as described above. Otherwise, as follows:

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C. C., & Contributor, D. D. (Year, Month). Title of contribution. In E. E. Chairperson (Chair), Title of symposium. Symposium conducted at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.

Presenter, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of paper or poster. Paper or poster session presented at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.

Willis, J. J. (2017, October). The impacts of climate change on hooded seals. Paper presented at the 15th meeting of the Marine Science Association, Bergen Norway. Retrieved from http://www.xxx.

If retrieved from a website or a doi is available, this information can be added at the end.


Author, A. A. (YEAR). Title of the work (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database: http://www.xxxx. (Accession or Order No. if available)


Author, A. A. (YEAR). Title of the work (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Name of institution: Location.

Barros, P. (1995). Quantitative studies on recruitment variations in Norwegian Spring-Spawning herring (Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758), with special emphasis on the juvenile stage (Doctoral dissertation). University of Bergen: Bergen.

Unpublished reports:

Author, A. A. (YEAR). Title of work. Unpublished manuscript (further information as available).

Pike, D. G., Gunnlaugsson Þ. & Víkingsson, G. A. (2008). T-NASS Icelandic aerial survey: Survey report and a preliminary abundance estimate for minke whales. Unpublished manuscript (document SC/60/PFI 12 for the IWC Scientific Committee).

For citations of all other types of sources please contact the editor(s) or consult the APA publication manual 6th Edition.


Articles are accepted by invitation only, and are peer-reviewed. 

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