Submission Preparation ChecklistAs part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
- The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
- The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
- Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
- The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
- The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
NAMMCO Scientific Publications:
Guidelines for authors
Authors need to submit one electronic copy of the manuscript in Microsoft Word (.doc or docx) format through the NAMMCO Scientific Publications website http://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/NAMMCOSP. This requires that the author submitting the manuscript first register as a user. After establishing a user account, instructions for submission will be provided through the online portal.
The title page should contain a list of all authors and the abstract. During the submission process, authors will also be requested to provide a list of keywords.
Author’s names should include first name (or initials), middle name (or initials), and last name. For each author, information on their affiliation is also required. This should include the name of the department (where appropriate) and university or organization, as well as the location including city, state/province (where applicable), and country. One author should be designated as the “corresponding author,” and an email address should also be included for this author.
The paper must include an abstract that does not exceed 350 words. This abstract should include information on the objectives, methods, results and major conclusions of the work. Citations should not be used in the abstract.
During the online submission process, authors will be requested to provide 8-10 keywords for the paper.
Body of the article
The body of the article should appear on a new page after the title page.
Papers reporting original research should be organised in sections entitled Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion.
Review articles may deviate from this format.
The Introduction should include the motivation or purpose of the research and state the research questions that are addressed.
The Materials and Methods section should provide sufficient information to allow someone to repeat the work. A clear description of the experimental design, sampling procedures and statistical methods should be included.
The Results should be stated concisely and without interpretation.
The Discussion section should present an interpretation of the results and a description of how they support or diverge from those of other sources.
For all research involving animals, a section on Adherence to Animal Welfare Protocols should be placed after the main body of the text. This should include a statement that the research presented in the manuscript has been done in accordance with the institutional and/or national animal welfare laws and protocols applicable in the jurisdiction/s in which the work was conducted. Reference numbers for any approvals obtained from ethical advisory boards or committees should also be stated.
A section for Acknowledgements can be placed directly before the section for References.
The References section should contain a full list of all works cited in the text. Further details on the style for citations and referencing is provided below.
Manuscript Formatting & Style
Manuscripts should be typed, 1.5-spaced, and contain 2.5 cm margins.
All pages, beginning with the title page, should be numbered in the bottom right hand corner with no period following the number.
Manuscript headings should adhere to the following format:
PRIMARY HEADING (all capitals, bold, blank line before and after)
Secondary heading (sentence case, bold and underlined, blank line before but not after)
Tertiary heading (sentence case, bold, blank line before but not after)
4th heading (sentence case, underlined, blank line before but not after)
5th heading (sentence case, italics, blank line before but not after)
Nouns and collective terms should be written in small letters (seals, beaked whales, monodontids). Hyphens should be used in such terms (strap‑toothed whale, short‑snouted spinner dolphin), but do not hyphenate words at the end of lines.
Descriptive terms and jargon that may be familiar only to specialists in the field should be avoided.
Italics should be used to highlight words in foreign languages, including scientific names and symbols for all variables and constants except Greek letters.
Scientific names of all organisms should be used the first time that they are mentioned. After this the common English names should be used.
Footnotes are not accepted.
Measurements and their designated abbreviations should be given according to the International System of Units (SI), but if the original measurements are made in non‑SI units, the actual values and the units should be given with SI equivalents inserted in parentheses.
Abbreviations of statistical terms should conform to the sixth edition of the CBE Style Manual (which may be purchased from the Council of Biology Editors, 111 e. Wacker Drive, Suite 200, Chicago, IL 60601‑4298 USA).
Numbers should be written as in the following examples: 1; 1.21; 1,000; 1,000,000. In scientific text, Arabic numerals should be used in preference to words when the number designates anything that can be counted or measured (e.g. 3 hypotheses, 7 samples). Ordinal numbers are treated in the same manner as cardinal numbers (e.g. 5th, 3rd). Numerals are also used to designate mathematical relationships such as ratios and multiplication factors (e.g. 5:1, 1000 times (or 1000×), 4-fold).
One of the exceptions to the use of numerals is that numerals are not used to begin a sentence. The second exception is when 2 numeric expressions are adjacent in a sentence. The number easiest to express in words should be spelled out and the other left in numeric form. In general it is preferable to retain the numeric form with units of measurement.
Decades should be written without apostrophes, e.g. 1970s or 1890s.
Manuscripts with equations should enter the equations using the Insert → Equation function in Microsoft Word .docx documents. If using an older version of Microsoft Word, the Equation editor function should be used.
Figures and Tables
Tables and figures should be submitted separately as supplementary files.
Tables submitted for publication should be included at the very end of the article file in a format such as .doc, .rtf, or .tex. Tables should be prepared using the Table facility of word processing programs, or using a spreadsheet program. Tables should not be formatted using spaces and tabs. Tables should be combined whenever feasible to reduce redundancies and the minimum number of horizontal and vertical dividing necessary for clarity should be used. Decimal points of numbers in columns should be aligned.
Figures must be submitted as separate electronic files. These should be high resolution TIFF or EPS files. For information on how to convert other file types to TIFF format, see: http://www.plosone.org/static/figureGuidelines.action#tiff. Line artwork (vector graphics) should be saved and sent as Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) files and bitmap files (halftones or photographic images) as Tagged Image Format (TIFF), with a resolution of at least 300 dpi at final size.
Multi-panel figures (those with parts A, B, C, and D) and multi-part figures should be submitted as a single file that contains all parts of the figure (i.e. pieces of the figure cannot be separated when copy/pasted, etc.). Each section should be appropriately labelled.
All figures and tables must be referred to in the text of the article, as in the following examples: (Fig. 1); (Table 2); "Figure 3 illustrates..."; "...as shown in Table 4". Figures and tables should also be numbered consecutively in 2 different series, one for figures and another for tables.
Figure and table legends should be short, precise, informative and strictly connected to the individual figure/table, to facilitate that it may be read and understood in isolation from its context within the body of the text.
The style of figures and tables should be uniform and the text should be written in the same style as the general body text. Sample figures and tables are shown below in Figure 1 and Table 1.
Extensive or detailed data sets or statistical information may be included as Supplementary Files. Tables, figures or other files submitted as Supplementary Files should be uploaded through the journal website as separate files in any of the following formats: Word (.doc), Excel (.xls), PDF, PPT, JPG, EPS, or TIFF.
LEGENDS TO TABLES
Table 1. Completed and projected future volumes of NAMMCO Scientific Publications.
Ringed Seals in the North Atlantic.
M.P. Heide-Jørgensen and C. Lydersen
Minke Whales, Harp and Hooded Seals: Major Predators in the North Atlantic Ecosystem
G. Vikingsson and F.O. Kapel
Sealworms in the North Atlantic: Ecology and Population Dynamics
G. Desportes and G. McClelland
Belugas in the North Atlantic and the Russian Arctic
M.P. Heide-Jørgensen and Ø. Wiig.
Harbour Porpoises in the North Atlantic
T. Haug, G. Víkingsson, L. Witting and G. Desportes
Grey Seals in the North Atlantic and the Baltic
T. Haug, M. Hammill and D. Ólafsdóttir
Cetacean Abundance in the North Atlantic: The North Atlantic Sightings Surveys
C. Lockyer and D. Pike
Harbour Seals in the North Atlantic
G. Desportes, A. Bjørge, A. Rosing-Asvid and G. Waring
LEGENDS TO FIGURES
Figure 1. The logo of the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO) was designed by Faroese artist Bárður Jákupsson.
Citations and References
NAMMCO has adopted the APA style as a standard for the formatting of citations and references. The authors are responsible for the accuracy of all citations both in the text and in the list of References according to this style. While an overview of the formatting requirements is provided below, for more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).
NAMMCO encourages authors to use one of the available software programs for the management of in text citations and reference lists. This will be the easiest and fastest way to ensure that the formatting of all references is done correctly. This can include common programs supported by educational institutions such as EndNote or Reference Manager, or alternatively programs such as Zotero that are available online and can be downloaded for free.
As a general rule, only published material should be cited and only literature cited in the text should be included in the list of References. However, citation of personal observations by the author of the present paper (personal observation), personal communications from others (personal communication), unpublished data and unpublished written material (e.g. working group papers) are acceptable at the discretion of the editors. Such citations should not, however, be used to support critical components of the article and should not be listed in the References. It is the author's responsibility to obtain permission to cite unpublished material.
In text citations
Citations in the text should be given in parentheses and should include author surname followed by a comma and the year (Sergeant, 1965).
For two authors, the surnames should be combined using the & symbol in parentheses (Lydersen & Kovacs, 1992).
For up to 5 authors, the first in text citation should provide all author surnames and year (Sharp, Aarons, Wittenberg, & Gittens, 2007) but will be abbreviated to the first author surname plus et al. (not italicised and with a period after the al) in following citations (Sharp et al. 2007).
For 6 authors or more, the surname of the first author should be followed by et al. (not italicised and with a period after the al) and the year (Nordøy et al. 1995).
Multiple citations should be arranged alphabetically and appear in the same order they would appear in the reference list. Works by different authors will be separated by semi colons (Bowen et al. 1987; Desportes et al. 1993; Sergeant 1965) while works by the same author will be separated by a comma between the years (Smart, 2002, 2007, 2015).
When the name of an author is used directly in the sentence, only the year should be cited in parentheses. For example, “Johnson (2007) found diving depths varied significantly with season”. If the same reference is to be cited again within the same paragraph, the year does not need to be included if the author surname is used within the sentence. However, the year should always be included when the reference is given in parentheses and for any citation of the work in subsequent paragraphs.
Where the use of et al. creates ambiguity because the same first author and year are used for more than one reference, as many author names as are necessary to distinguish between the two should be used in the in text citation (Marewski, Stone & White 2007) (Marewski, Stone, Schuler et al. 2007). If it happens that all the author names are exactly the same and the studies were published in the same year as well, et al. as usual should be used but also lowercase letters after the year included (2010a, 2010b, etc.). If there are two primary authors sharing the same surname, the first author’s initials should be included in all citations so as to avoid confusion, even if the year of publication differs.
For personal communications, a first initial as well as a surname, institute and a precise date should be included in the in text citation (personal communication C. Winsnes, NAMMCO, April 27th 2018).
When groups (i.e. corporations, government agencies, organisations etc) serve as authors, these should usually be spelled out completely each time they appear in an in text citation. However, they can be spelled out the first time and abbreviated thereafter if the name is long and the abbreviation is familiar or readily understandable (International Council for Exploration of the Sea [ICES], 2017), subsequently (ICES 2017).
When a work has no identified author, the in text citation should use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. In this case, double quotation marks should be used around the titles of articles, chapters or webpages, while titles from journals, newspapers, books or reports should be italicised – e.g. (“Killer whales in decline”, 2018). In the book Marine Mammals of Russia (2015).
Direct quotations should always include a page number in the in text citation - When data is absent “such taxa are de facto considered to be not endangered or threatened” (Lowry, Laist & Taylor, 2007, p. 65). Where page numbers are not available but paragraph numbers are (e.g. for online sources) the abbreviation para can be used (Jones, 2007, para. 6).
Works cited in the text are listed alphabetically in the reference list by the surname of the first author, with each new entry containing a hanging indent. For references that have a doi or URL, this should be included in the reference list.
When there are several works by the same first author, these should be ordered by year of publication, with the earliest published appearing first in the list.
Redding, F. (2003)…
Redding, F. (2005)…
However, single author entries will precede multiple author works when both begin with the same surname (even if the multiple author work was published earlier).
Allanby, R. L. (2001)…
Allanby, R. L., & Evans, A. J. (1999)…
For group authors (e.g. associations, agencies or organisations) use the first significant word of the name and order alphabetically in the list according to this. Full official names and not abbreviations should be used in the reference list.
If there is a work with no author, the title is moved to the author position and the entry is alphabetised by the first significant word of the title.
When there are 8 or more authors, the reference list should include the first six authors’ names, then three ellipsis points (…) and the last author’s name. For 2-7 authors, the & symbol should be used before the last author.
If an author’s first name is hyphenated, the hyphen should be kept with a period after each initial (Lamour, J.-B.,)
If a non-English reference is cited as a source, give the title of the work in the original language in the reference list and then, in brackets, the English translation.
Ognetov GN and Potelov VA (1978) Dynamika zakhodov belukhi v Beloje more (Dynamics of the migration of white whales into the White Sea). Ekologija (Ecology). 4:78-85.
Examples of the format for different sources in the reference list is provided below.
Journal Articles (+ newspapers, magazines and newsletters):
Author, A. A., Author, B., B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, xx, pp. doi:XX.XXXXXXXXXX
Example article without doi:
Härkönen, T. & Isakson, E. (2011). Historical and current status of harbour seals in the Baltic proper. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 8, pp. 71-76.
Example article with doi:
Goudet, J., Perrin, N., & Waser, P. (2002). Tests for sex-biased dispersal using bi-parentally inherited genetic markers. Mol. Ecol. 11(6):1103–1114. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-294X.2002.01496.x
Example article with URL:
Guo, S. W., & Thompson, E. A. (1992). Performing the exact test for Hardy-Weinberg proportion for multiple alleles. Biometrics 48(2), pp. 361–372. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2532296
Example article with more than 7 authors:
Desportes, G., Kristensen, J. H., Benham, D., Wilson, S., Jepsen, T., Korsgaard, B., … Shephard, G. (2003). Multiple insights into the reproductive function of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena): An ongoing study. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 5, pp. 91-106. doi: 10.7557/3.2741
Example advanced online article:
Moran, J. R., Heintz, R. A., Straley, J. M., & Vollenweider, J. J. (2018). Regional variation in the intensity of humpback whale predation on Pacific herring in the Gulf of Alaska. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2017.07.010
Example newsletter article, no author
International meeting delivers scientific advice for the management of hooded seals. (2016, December). The Society for Marine Mammology. Retrieved from https://www.marinemammalscience.org/news/members-newsletter/
Author, A. A. (YEAR). Title of the work. Location: Publisher.
A doi or URL can also be used for online book sources – both single author and edited volumes.
Author, A. A. (YEAR). Title of the work. doi: xxx or Retrieved from xxx
Härkönen, T. (1986). Guide to the otoliths of the bony fishes of the Northeast Atlantic. Hellerup: Danbiu.
For all books (authored or edited), any information about the edition or volume of the book should be placed in parentheses following the title, e.g. (2nd Ed.)
Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (YEAR). Title of the work. Location: Publisher.
Rødseth T. (Ed.). (1998). Models for multispecies management. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag.
Papers in edited books:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1995). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx–xxx). Location: Publisher.
Alternatively, if using URL or doi
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1993). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx–xxx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx or doi: xx.xxx
Ekker, M., Vongraven, D., Jenssen, B. M. & Silverstone, M. (1995). Assessment of the vulnerability of grey seals to oil contamination at Froan, Norway. In A. S. Blix, L. Walløe, & Ø. Ulltang (Eds.), Whales, seals, fish and man (pp. xx-xxx). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
If there is only 1 editor, use (Ed.). For major reference works with large editorial boards, the name of the first author may be given followed by et al.
Papers authored by organizations:
Organisation. (YEAR). Title of the work (Report No. xxx). Location: Publisher.
Organisation. (YEAR). Title of the work (Report No. xxx). Retrieved from organisation name website: http://www.xxxx or doi: xx.xxxx.
International Whaling Commission. (1997). Report of the Sub-Committee on the Small Cetaceans. Retrieved from IWC website: https://iwc.int/pubpre1999
Papers & presentations from symposia or meetings:
If the proceedings of meetings or symposia are published in book or periodical form, they should follow the formats for these as described above. Otherwise, as follows:
Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C. C., & Contributor, D. D. (Year, Month). Title of contribution. In E. E. Chairperson (Chair), Title of symposium. Symposium conducted at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.
Presenter, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of paper or poster. Paper or poster session presented at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.
Author, A. A. (YEAR). Title of the work (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database: http://www.xxxx. (Accession or Order No. if available)
Author, A. A. (YEAR). Title of the work (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Name of institution: Location.
Barros, P. (1995). Quantitative studies on recruitment variations in Norwegian Spring-Spawning herring (Clupea harengus Linnaeus 1758), with special emphasis on the juvenile stage (Doctoral dissertation). University of Bergen: Bergen.
Author, A. A. (YEAR). Title of work. Unpublished manuscript (further information as available).
Pike, D. G., Gunnlaugsson Þ. & Víkingsson, G. A. (2008). T-NASS Icelandic aerial survey: Survey report and a preliminary abundance estimate for minke whales. Unpublished manuscript (document SC/60/PFI 12 for the IWC Scientific Committee).
For citations of all other types of sources please contact the editor(s) or consult the APA publication manual 6th Edition.
Articles are accepted by invitation only, and are peer-reviewed.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeThe Effect of Open Access).
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.