Status of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Baltic proper
Keywords:harbour seals, Baltic Sea
AbstractThe small population of harbour seals in the Baltic proper descend from seals that entered into the Baltic some 8,000 years ago. They form a genetically separate population with private alleles not present elsewhere. They were hunted close to extinction in the beginning of the 20th century and experienced a severe bottle-neck with perhaps only ten reproductive females in the 1970s. Protective measures and reduction of xenobiotic substances have improved the situation, and the hauled-out moulting population size was 588 in 2008, and about 100 pups have been born annually during the past few years. The protective measures in the form of banned hunting and establishment of protected areas will suffice to allow the population to grow, but the population will not reach favourable conservation status within foreseeable future.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).