The status of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in the United Kingdom
AbstractThe UK holds approximately 40% of the European harbour seal population, with the majority found around the coasts of Scotland. Harbour seal populations in the UK have been monitored through a series of repeated aerial surveys of animals hauled out during the annual moult in early August. This moult count is used as a consistent index of population size. Survey methods and frequencies vary. The Scottish and English east coast populations mainly haul out in tidal estuariesand are surveyed annually, using fixed wing aircraft and digital photography. Populations in north and west Scotland often haul out on rocky shores and are surveyed less frequently, using helicopters fitted with thermal imagers. Overall, the most recent minimum estimate of the UK harbour seal population is 24,250 seals of which 19,800 are in Scotland, 3,200 in England and 1,250 in Northern Ireland. The results show that the number of harbour seals in eastern Englandwas increasing before the 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper (PDV) epizootic but has not increased since the end of the 2002 epizootic. There is also evidence of a general decline in most of the large harbour seal colonies around Scotland. The populations along the north and northwest mainland coast were an exception, with numbers appearing to be stable. Between 2001 and 2008, the population in Orkney declined by 67% and Shetland declined by 40%, indicating harbourseals in these areas experienced substantially increased mortality or very low recruitment over this period. The widespread declines, ranging from Shetland to The Wash, suggest that the causes may have been present over a large part of the North Sea and waters off western Scotland.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeThe Effect of Open Access).